Allofams:
1.0 The Body > 1.5 Limbs, Joints, and Body Measures > 1.5.1 Hand, Arm, Wing

#699 PTB *d-yak HAND / ARM / LEAF

The source of this prefix is a matter of speculation, but cf. the apparently prefixal dental that occurs before other roots referring to the upper limb in scattered TB languages: e.g. [Himalayish] WT dpuŋ ‘shoulder’; [Qiangic] rGyalrong tekhlye ‘upper arm’; [Asakian] Kadu tapaung, ‘arm’, Sak ta ‘arm’, Lui takhu ‘arm’; [Naga] Ao Chungli teben ‘arm’, tashikang ‘wing’, Ao Mongsen pen, cha ‘arm’, tacha ‘wing’, Yacham Tengsa taka ‘wing’; [Tani] Taraon ta: ‘feather’.

We assign to this allofam reflexes with affricate initials (e.g. Tujia, Qiang, Naga).

The cluster dl‑ is not tolerated in most TB languages1, so that the presence of the dental prefix has favored the palatalization of the root-initial lateral.

This allofam is the immediate source of the Karenic forms assembled below #773 PKar *ɁdeɁᴰ WING.

Forms from Northern Naga languages show initial variation among the simple palatal semivowel, dental stops, and palatal affricates: e.g. Tamlu bɯn‑yak, Tangsa ³pul‑džak, and Nocte ¹ʌ‑dʌk, all meaning ‘leaf’. To Weidert belongs the credit for identifying the morphemic structure of these compounds as “tree-hand”. For convenience’s sake, we list all these forms under the present allofam.

rnanalysislgidreflexglossgfnlanguagegrpidgrpnogrpgeneticcitationsrcabbrsrcidrn
5161236992012d-yak|hand / arm*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB6190
5148766992012dyakhand / arm*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB5870
340824p,6991800a:◦tyohandDarang [Taraon]61.1.2Deng1Anonymous xx TarNEFA-Taraon0
340825p,699,m1800a:◦tyo-kapalm of handDarang [Taraon]61.1.2Deng1Anonymous xx TarNEFA-Taraon0
341480p,699,m1800a:◦tyo-ka:palm (of hand)Darang [Taraon]61.1.2Deng1Anonymous xx TarNEFA-Taraon0
340826p,699,m1800a:◦tyo-khamback of handDarang [Taraon]61.1.2Deng1Anonymous xx TarNEFA-Taraon0
39705p,699505ɑ³¹ tio⁵⁵handDarang [Taraon]61.1.2Deng1Sun H 80 MLDSLZO-MLD0
350510p,6991818ɑ³¹tio⁵⁵handnbpDarang [Taraon]61.1.2Deng1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0107.220
192784p,699509ɑ³¹tio⁵⁵handDarang [Taraon]61.1.2Deng1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC251.490
129072p,699661ka³¹tio⁵³handIdu61.1.2Deng1Sun H 91 IduQSHK-Idu6.1.70
129074p,699,m,m,m661ka³¹tio⁵³e⁵⁵tɕa⁵⁵ȵu⁵⁵right handIdu61.1.2Deng1Sun H 91 IduQSHK-Idu6.1.7.40
129075p,699,m,m,m661ka³¹tio⁵³i⁵⁵tɕi⁵⁵ȵu⁵⁵left handIdu61.1.2Deng1Sun H 91 IduQSHK-Idu6.1.7.50
192810p,699662kɑ³¹tio⁵³handIdu61.1.2Deng1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC251.500
350513p,6991821kɑ³¹tio⁵³handnbpYidu61.1.2Deng1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0107.250
165775699252dzehandAngami (Khonoma)651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
514565699,m252dze◦jelopalm (of hand)Angami (Khonoma)651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL1870
167277p,699256(u) dzie³¹handAngami (Kohima)651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Nienu 90 AngQVN-AngQ6.1.70
167279p,699,m256(u) dzie³¹ khrü³³back of handAngami (Kohima)651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Nienu 90 AngQVN-AngQ6.1.7.20
165776p,699254u◦dziehandAngami (Kohima)651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
514566p,699,m254u◦dzie◦züpalm (of hand)Angami (Kohima)651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL1870
47093338,6991063kèng-jàkankleMikir [Karbi]141.5Mikir [Karbi]1Grüssner 79 BPKHG-MikirQ420
5332666992064jakhand*Bodo-Garo161.7.1Bodo-Garo1Burling 59 PBoRB-PB4410
56064699803yaʔhand, armKokborok801.7.1.1Bodo1Tripuri 88PT-Kok0
56068699,m803yaʔ-tɔlead by the handKokborok801.7.1.1Bodo1Tripuri 88PT-Kok0
7186m,699568bi-jakleafGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT11260
303018699579dźakhandGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Benedict 72 STCSTC14n500
303327699579dźakarmGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Benedict 72 STCSTC34n1080
71549699,776579džak-phapalmGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Benedict 72 STCSTC4180
69846699,2786579džak-raright (hand)Garo811.7.1.2Garo1Benedict 72 STCSTC980
69609699,418579džak-tśikelbowGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Benedict 72 STCSTC640
7185699568jakhandGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT11260
5549699,331568jak-sifingerGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT5870
115625699,331571jak-sifingerGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
144920699581jakhand, armGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
4664496991945jakarm; handnGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG6.233-II:idx0
144921699,m581jak-brakarea of body including shoulder and upper arm, especially front of shoulder and inside of the upper armGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
144926699,m,m,m581jak-pa-jang-gilback of handGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
144927699,1327581jak-pongupper armGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
466469699,27861945jak-raright handnGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG2.11-II:idx0
144928699,331581jak-sifinger, distal portion of an insect legGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
466473699,3311945jak-sifingernGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG6.235-II:idx0
144932699,331,m,m581jak-si-chon-gip-alittle fingerGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
466477699,331,m,m1945jak-si-jang-chimiddle finger; ring fingernGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG6.235-II:idx0
144933699,331,m,m581jak-si-ku-titip of fingerGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
466480699,331,m,m1945jak-si-ot-raindex fingernGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG6.235-II:idx0
144935699,331,m,m581jak-si-pi'-salittle fingerGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
466481699,331,m,m1945jak-si-pi•-salittle fingernGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG6.235-II:idx0
466482699,331,m1945jak-si-tamring for fingernGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG6.564-II:idx0
144936699,m581jak-skilfinger nail, clawGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
466483699,m1945jak-skilclaw; finger mail; nailnGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG6.235-II:idx0
144937699,m581jak-skuelbowGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
466484699,m1945jak-skuelbownGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG6.233-II:idx0
466487699,m1945jak-tomfistnGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG6.235-II:idx0
144938699,m,m581jak-tom-amake a fistGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
466488699,m,m1945jak-tom-afistviGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG9.46-II:idx0
467277699,m,m,m1945pak-sik-kep-acarry under armvtGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG9.532-II:idx0
145021699,m581pak-walarm pitGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
467279699,m1945pak-walarm pitnGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG6.233-II:idx0
514673699295cakhandAtong821.7.1.3Koch1Burling 59 PBoRB-PB4410
473570699,13271973cak◦phungarm, upper armnAtong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
4735566991973chakarm, handnAtong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
473559699,m1973chak chokhandn khjyksaiAtong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
473561699,m1973chak◦chukelbownAtong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
473564699,m1973chak◦khawakhollow part of the elbow, elbow pitnAtong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
473567699,7761973chak◦phapalm of the handnAtong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
473568699,m,m1973chak◦pha◦khungback of the handnAtong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
473569699,13271973chak◦phongarm, upper armnAtong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
473576699,m1973chak◦sikhumback of the handnAtong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
4735796991973chak◦syrong-stretch your armvAtong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
514672699,7111627cak-toŋhandWanang821.7.1.3Koch1Burling 59 PBoRB-PB4410
7188p,6991187¹ʌ-dʌkleafNocte841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT11260
59296991488džʌkhandTangsa841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT6890
7086699,m1488džʌk-xaʔhand-rightTangsa841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT10680
5191699,776,m1488džʌk-²pha-³muŋpalm (hand)Tangsa841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3580
71902176,6991488³pul-džʌkleafTangsa841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT11260
71942176,699810bɯn-yakleafKonyak (Tamlu)851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT11260
7193699810yakhandKonyak (Tamlu)851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT11260
780256991632cakhandWancho851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1French 83WTF-PNN5000
77848699,m1632cak inclawWancho851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1French 83WTF-PNN4690
1658026991628chakhandWancho851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
171729699,m1628chak◦inclawWancho851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
165460699,m1628chak◦loelbowWancho851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
3033316991723tśakarmWancho851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Benedict 72 STCSTC34n1080
1650126991628tzakarmWancho851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
451569699,3311964taʔ◦ʃiʔfingerSak401.7.3.2Asakian1Huziwara 08 SakHK-Sak31 2
282998699894džaktickleLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
178994699172ᴬʰjaːhand*TGTM232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis8220
37524699,3631316dʒa◦hu̥armpit hairQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun J 86 MawoJS-Mawo0
37450699,13271316dʒa◦puarmQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun J 86 MawoJS-Mawo0
37456699,m1316dʒa◦sufingerQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun J 86 MawoJS-Mawo0
192891699,13271320dʒu puarmQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC253.80
43155699,13271317dʒu◦puarmQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 81 QiaJZ-Qiang0
129271699,m1319dʒæ sufingerQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MawQSHK-MawoQ7.10
129273699,m,m,m,m1319dʒæ su tu ɣu kæmiddle fingerQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MawQSHK-MawoQ7.1.20
129272699,m,m,m,m1319dʒæ su zə nuʐ kækæindex fingerQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MawQSHK-MawoQ7.1.10
129247699,m,m1319dʒæ ʁuæʴ◦sielbowQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MawQSHK-MawoQ6.1.40
129248699,s1319dʒə pahandQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MawQSHK-MawoQ6.1.70
129250699,m,m1319dʒə pa næ◦χiright handQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MawQSHK-MawoQ6.1.7.40
129251699,m,2154,m1319dʒə pa ʁuaʴ χileft handQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MawQSHK-MawoQ6.1.7.50
192789699,s1320dʒə pɑhandQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC251.80
37454699,s1316dʒə◦pahandQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun J 86 MawoJS-Mawo0
129282699,m,m,5121319dʒə◦pa ʁdʐi sifingernailQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MawQSHK-MawoQ7.4.10
43154699,s1317dʒə◦pɑhandQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 81 QiaJZ-Qiang0
199011699,m1320dʒɑ dibraceletQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC373.80
192993699,m1320dʒɑ sufingerQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC255.80
192942699,m,m1320dʒɑ ʁuɑʴ sielbowQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC254.80
43156699,m1317dʒɑ◦sufingerQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 81 QiaJZ-Qiang0
129275699,m1319dʑi mithumbQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MawQSHK-MawoQ7.1.50
199113699,m1320dʑi sɑringQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC375.80
129243699,13271319dʑu puarmQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MawQSHK-MawoQ6.10
37453m,699,m1316lasi dʒaʴ◦ʁsielbowQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun J 86 MawoJS-Mawo0
193044699,5121320ɣdʒə sifingernailQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC256.80
43157699,5121317ɣdʒə◦sifingernailQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 81 QiaJZ-Qiang0
37461699,5121316ʁdʐə◦sifingernailQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun J 86 MawoJS-Mawo0
17875699,5121325ʁdʐə◦sfingernailQiang (Yadu)343.2Qiangic1Dai 89 QianDQ-QiangN1410
14085p,699,512606ta jᴇk ndʑufingernailrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Dai 89 JiarDQ-Jiarong7.4.10
14046699606ta |jᴇkhandrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Dai 89 JiarDQ-Jiarong6.1.70
14051699606ta |jᴇk ka cʰaleft handrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Dai 89 JiarDQ-Jiarong6.1.7.50
14050699606ta |jᴇk ka wlakright handrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Dai 89 JiarDQ-Jiarong6.1.7.40
14083699,m,m,418606ta |jᴇk ndʑo wu tsʰəkknuckle (joint of digit)rGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Dai 89 JiarDQ-Jiarong7.30
14048699,m606ta |jᴇk ŋkʰuback of handrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Dai 89 JiarDQ-Jiarong6.1.7.20
130159699616tajɐkhandrGyalrong (Eastern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rEQSHK-rGEQ6.1.70
130161699,m616tajɐk gŋkʰuback of handrGyalrong (Eastern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rEQSHK-rGEQ6.1.7.20
130163699616tajɐk ka◦tʃʰaright handrGyalrong (Eastern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rEQSHK-rGEQ6.1.7.40
130164699616tajɐk kəwlaleft handrGyalrong (Eastern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rEQSHK-rGEQ6.1.7.50
130158699,481616tajɐk mkiwristrGyalrong (Eastern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rEQSHK-rGEQ6.1.60
130201p,699,512,m616ta◦jɐk ndzə◦rufingernailrGyalrong (Eastern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rEQSHK-rGEQ7.4.10
330740p,699,512,m1797tə-ja-ndz◦rufingernailCaodeng783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 CaoJS-Caodeng0
329951699,m1797tə-|ja-qʰuback of handCaodeng783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 CaoJS-Caodeng0
130796699,m618təja mkeforearm / lower armrGyalrong (NW)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNWSHK-rGNWQ6.1.50
130468699617təjakarmrGyalrong (Northern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNQSHK-rGNQ6.10
130477699617təjakhandrGyalrong (Northern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNQSHK-rGNQ6.1.70
130475699,m617təjak mkeforearm / lower armrGyalrong (Northern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNQSHK-rGNQ6.1.50
130803699,m618təjak queleft handrGyalrong (NW)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNWSHK-rGNWQ6.1.7.50
130479699,m617təjak qʰoback of handrGyalrong (Northern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNQSHK-rGNQ6.1.7.20
130797699,418618təjak sewristrGyalrong (NW)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNWSHK-rGNWQ6.1.60
130476699,418617təjak tsʰəkwristrGyalrong (Northern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNQSHK-rGNQ6.1.60
130523699,418617təjak tsʰəkknuckle (joint of digit)rGyalrong (Northern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNQSHK-rGNQ7.30
130844699,418618təjak tsʰəkknuckle (joint of digit)rGyalrong (NW)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNWSHK-rGNWQ7.30
130634699,m617təjak tərdʑomphalanx (knuckle length)rGyalrong (Northern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNQSHK-rGNQ13.10
130481699,m617təjak tɕʰaright handrGyalrong (Northern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNQSHK-rGNQ6.1.7.40
130802699,m618təjak ʁatɕʰiright handrGyalrong (NW)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNWSHK-rGNWQ6.1.7.40
130482699,m617təjak ʁoileft handrGyalrong (Northern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNQSHK-rGNQ6.1.7.50
130800699,m618təjak ʁuback of handrGyalrong (NW)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNWSHK-rGNWQ6.1.7.20
130788699618təjaxarmrGyalrong (NW)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNWSHK-rGNWQ6.10
130798699618təjaxhandrGyalrong (NW)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNWSHK-rGNWQ6.1.70
303337699611təyăkhandrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Benedict 72 STCSTC34n1080
3309206991797tə́-|jahand / armCaodeng783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 CaoJS-Caodeng0
130525p,699,512,m617tə◦jak ndzu◦rufingernailrGyalrong (Northern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNQSHK-rGNQ7.4.10
130846p,699,512,m618tə◦jak ndzə◦rufingernailrGyalrong (NW)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNWSHK-rGNWQ7.4.10
3504996991806tɐ |jɐkhandnbprGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0107.110
1927916991340tɐ |jɐkhandrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC251.120
350399699,4811806tɐ |jɐk mkiarmnbprGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0105.110
350550699,4811806tɐ |jɐk mkiwristnrGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0108.110
351734699,m1806tɐ |jɐk rtsɐpulse (wrist)nrGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0131.110
192893699,4811340tɐ |jɐŋ mkiarmrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC253.12 3
130153699,236616tɐjɐk mbroarmrGyalrong (Eastern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rEQSHK-rGEQ6.10
130313699,m,m,m616tɐjɐk ste kərɟjam ~tətəkrphalanx (knuckle length)rGyalrong (Eastern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rEQSHK-rGEQ13.10
329464699,m1796ta |yu Nkhu < ta yuk 'khuback of handrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Nagano 97 GyQGyarong.Nag6.1.720
3294626991796ta |yukhandrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Nagano 97 GyQGyarong.Nag6.1.70
329467699,m,m1796ta |yuk ka glaleft handrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Nagano 97 GyQGyarong.Nag6.1.750
329466699,m,m1796ta |yuk ka khyasright handrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Nagano 97 GyQGyarong.Nag6.1.740
3330786991799tɐ-|jɐkhand; armrGBenzhen783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 rGBJS-rGBenzhe0
333884699,4811799tɐ-|jɐk mkiʔwristrGBenzhen783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 rGBJS-rGBenzhe0
332909699,m1799tɐ-|jɐk mkʰuʔelbowrGBenzhen783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 rGBJS-rGBenzhe0
3329646991799tɐ-|jɐk ʃum-ʃumfingernailrGBenzhen783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 rGBJS-rGBenzhe0
3339216991798tə-|jaq/χhand / armShili783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 ShiJS-Shili0
127381p,699,m1612a²¹ dʑe²¹ be²¹fingerTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuMQCK-TujMQ7.10
127382p,699,m1612a²¹ dʑe³⁵ a²¹ ma²¹ ni³⁵thumbTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuMQCK-TujMQ7.1.50
127363p,6991612a²¹ dʑe⁵⁵handTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuMQCK-TujMQ6.1.70
127365p,699,m1612a²¹ dʑe⁵⁵ dzo³⁵fistTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuMQCK-TujMQ6.1.7.30
127359p,699,m,m1612a²¹ dʑe⁵⁵ mɯe²¹ dʑi⁵⁵armTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuMQCK-TujMQ6.10
127364p,699,m,m1612a²¹ dʑe⁵⁵ mɯe⁵⁵ kʰɯe²¹back of handTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuMQCK-TujMQ6.1.7.20
127362p,699,m1612a²¹ dʑe⁵⁵ po²¹ lo²¹elbowTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuMQCK-TujMQ6.1.40
127373p,699,m1612a²¹ dʑi²¹ a²¹ la⁵⁵ankleTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuMQCK-TujMQ6.2.50
1272176991611tɕe³⁵handTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ6.1.70
433806991616tɕe³⁵handTujia (Northern)415Tujia1Tian 86JZ-Tujia0
127216699,m,m1611tɕe³⁵ lo³⁵ pu⁵⁵wristTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ6.1.60
43392699,m,m1616tɕe³⁵ lo³⁵ pu⁵⁵wrist (bone)Tujia (Northern)415Tujia1Tian 86JZ-Tujia0
127215699,m,m1611tɕe³⁵ lo³⁵ tʰi⁵⁵elbowTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ6.1.40
127236699,3201611tɕe³⁵ mi⁵⁵ tʰi²¹ kã⁵⁵ pʰɯe⁵⁵middle fingerTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ7.1.20
127237699,3201611tɕe³⁵ mi⁵⁵ tʰi²¹ tso³⁵ kʰu³³ring fingerTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ7.1.30
127238699,3201611tɕe³⁵ mi⁵⁵ tʰi²¹ tʰe⁵⁵ pʰɯe²¹little fingerTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ7.1.40
127235699,3201611tɕe³⁵ mi⁵⁵ tʰi²¹ za²¹ pa²¹index fingerTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ7.1.10
127239699,3201611tɕe³⁵ mi⁵⁵ tʰi²¹ ȵi²¹ ka²¹thumbTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ7.1.50
43381699,m,m1616tɕe³⁵ si⁵⁵ pʰɨe⁵⁵armTujia (Northern)415Tujia1Tian 86JZ-Tujia0
127212699,m,m1611tɕe³⁵ si⁵⁵ pʰɯe⁵⁵armTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ6.10
127213699,m,m1611tɕe³⁵ tã⁵⁵ tɕi²¹underarm / armpitTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ6.1.10
127219699,m,m1611tɕe³⁵ tsʰuei²¹ tsi²¹fistTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ6.1.7.30
127240699,m,m1611tɕe³⁵ tʰi⁵⁵ kʰɯe⁵⁵fingerprintTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuBQCK-TujBQ7.1.60
3505376991847tɕie³⁵handnbpTujia415Tujia1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0107.490
1928046991615tɕie³⁵handTujia415Tujia1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC251.380
350588699,m,m1847tɕie³⁵lo³⁵pu⁵⁵wristnTujia415Tujia1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0108.490
350487699,m,m1847tɕie³⁵lo³⁵thi⁵⁵elbownbpTujia415Tujia1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0106.490
192957699,m,m1615tɕie³⁵lo³⁵thi⁵⁵elbowTujia415Tujia1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC254.380
350437699,745,s1847tɕie³⁵pan⁵⁵tsi⁵⁵armnbpTujia415Tujia1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0105.490
192906699,745,s1615tɕie³⁵pan⁵⁵tsi⁵⁵armTujia415Tujia1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC253.380
350892699,m,m1847tɕie³⁵tshui²¹tsi²¹fistnTujia415Tujia1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0114.490
192855699,m,m1615tɕie³⁵tshui²¹tsi²¹fistTujia415Tujia1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC252.380
43525p,6991617ʔa²¹ dʑe⁵⁵handTujia (Southern)415Tujia1Tian 86JZ-Tujia0
43526p,699,m,m1617ʔa²¹ dʑe⁵⁵ mai²¹ tɕi⁵⁵armTujia (Southern)415Tujia1Tian 86JZ-Tujia0
145936702,1289,699,1289,695,1289409gyak-kăliʼ ⪤ tshak-kăliʼ ⪤ lak-kăliʼarmpitBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 72 STCSTC2650

Chinese comparandum

翼 OC *gi̯ək, GSR #954d ‘wing’; Li 1971: (*rək); Baxter 1992 #469: *ljɨk; B & S 2011: *ɢrəp; Schuessler 2007:570; Mand. .

ZJH: As discussed in Handel 2009:133-134, if reconstructed with initial OC *l‑ (a view shared by Schuessler 2007:570), this is a perfect match to PTB *lak, a comparison that is preferable to *d‑yak. Chinese 翼 ‘wing’ and 亦 ‘armpit’ thus differ only in the reconstructed main vowel ( vs. *a), both of which correspond regularly to PTB *a. The nature of the word-family relationship of the two words within Chinese is unclear.

Note that Baxter & Sagart (2011) reconstruct coda *‑p for 翼 , with “dialectal” development of *‑p to later *‑k, because they believe this is the same word as that written with the homophonous character 翌, also ‘wing’, which has phonetic 立 ending in *‑p. Their reconstruction would separate 翼 ‘wing’ and 亦 ‘armpit’ into two different Chinese words families, and preclude the comparison of the former to the *lak/*yak family of PTB arm/hand/wing roots.


^ 1.
An exception is Sani =Nyi (Loloish), which has developed *dl‑*by (e.g. ‘bee’ *bya > Nyi dla‑ma).
^ 2.
The final glottal stop in Sak ʃiʔ has led Huziwara to speculate that the Proto-Asakian etymon had a final consonant, perhaps *‑r (cf. sor#324 PBod *s(w/y)ar FINGER).
^ 3.
Note the assimilation of the medial consonants in rGyalrong jɐŋ mki.