Allofams:
4.0 Kinship Terms, Ethnonyms, Social Roles > 4.2 Roles > 4.2.11 Stages of growth

#2727 PTB *tsa-n CHILD / GRANDCHILD / NEPHEW / NIECE

Reconstructed mesoroots below:

There is variation between the fricative and affricate initials even within the same subgroup (e.g., Qiangic, Burmish). See #1012 PTB *za‑n CHILD.

rnanalysislgidreflexglossgfnlanguagegrpidgrpnogrpgeneticcitationsrcabbrsrcidrn
607822727,1012181tsa ⪤ *zachild, son*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB1200
5159932727,10122012tsa-|n ⪤ za-|nchild / son / relatives*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB6160
254821p,27271019a◦chasonMaring111.3“Naga” Areal Group0Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
61917927272229tsaʔSON*Central Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNIII.0200
618917p,2727,s2228(t-)tʃa-əɹSON*Ao631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.1440
2542132727,s270chi◦rchildAo (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
620115p,2727,s2226tə³-tʃi◦ɹ³¹sonn.Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.1440
6201342727,m2245tʃa²nu²child, youngn.Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 SuppCNDWB-CNSD0
6201352727,m,m2245tʃa²pa³su¹sonn.Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 SuppCNDWB-CNSD0
254215m,2727,s273i◦cha◦rchildAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
4512722727,s1963tʃà-(ə)ɹson ('offspring' + ANOM)n.Ao (Mongsen: Mangmetong)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Coupe 07 AoARC-GMA0
4506592727,54931963tʃà◦ladaughter ('offspring' + F)n.Ao (Mongsen: Mangmetong)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Coupe 07 AoARC-GMA0
622005p,2727,s2231o¹-tso²-eʔ³childrenn.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNp.1840
6204162727,m,s2231tso²-khjoŋ¹-oʔ²sonn.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNIII.0200
6217552727,5493,s2247tso²◦lo◦v³daughtern.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 SuppCNDWB-CNSD 1
254224p,2727,s963o◦tso◦echildLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
254816p,2727,s,p,1635,s963o◦tso◦e-e◦pu◦esonLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2370p,2727,s962¹o²dzo(-³eʔ)childLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT440
4743p,2727962¹o²dzo(ʔ)sonLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3030
2548332727,s1364tsu◦rüsonSangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
47442727,s1671(¹)|dzɯʔ◦¹rɯsonYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3030
254241p,2727,s1672a◦zü◦rüchildYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2548402727,s1672tsü◦rüsonYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
6180552727,5471671²dzɯʔ◦⁽²⁾meak [¹]son-in-lawYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT6330
254226p,27271050a◦tsachildMeluri651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
52915527272031tsachild / diminutive*Tangkhulic661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-Tk7470
524767m,27272022si-ðuyoung (of animal) / calf / foalKachai661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-TkAnimals.0040
33705427271788chaṅchild / son / son of brothernKanauri202.1.1Western Himalayish0Bailey 11BAI19110
1164012727,593732chaṅ khŭlwomb (child-skin)Kanauri202.1.1Western Himalayish0Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
3390162727,m1788chaṅ tāmigʻbear childvKanauri202.1.1Western Himalayish0Bailey 11BAI19110
33705527271788chaṅtsinfant / child (little)Kanauri202.1.1Western Himalayish0Bailey 11BAI19110
42233m,2727,6701086wak◦tsa ɕumplacentaTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 80 MLDSLZO-MLD0
23718927271564btsabirth, giveTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
3032272727,s1578btsa-babirth, giveTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC277n860
2700876031,m,2727596ra◦jāh◦jāqkid (goat)nGurung232.1.4Tamangish1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN03a.0390
647846031,m,2727604rə jah◦jaqgoat (kid)Gurung (Ghachok)232.1.4Tamangish1Glover 72 GuVoSIL-Gur3.A.390
2700886031,27271457rā◦tcākid (goat)nTamang (Sahu)232.1.4Tamangish1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN03a.0390
1231206031,27271464ra◦tcakid, baby goatTamang (Sahu)232.1.4Tamangish1Taylor 72 TmVoSIL-Sahu3.390
2700896031,m,27271520ra cah◦cakid (goat)nThakali232.1.4Tamangish1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN03a.0390
678256031,m,27271531rɔ cɔh◦cɔkidThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak3.A.390
3238042306,27271789cil◦cāgoat (kid)Newar272.2Newar1Genetti 90 NeQ2CG-NewariQ20
2700975602,6034,27271166du◦gu-cākid-(diminutive) (goat)nNewar272.2Newar1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN03a.0390
270175b,27271166garā-cādonkey-(diminutive)nNewar272.2Newar1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN03a.045 2
323807m,27271789phasi◦cālamb (diminutive)Newar272.2Newar1Genetti 90 NeQ2CG-NewariQ20
62226519,m,27271174te◦pu◦canavel-(diminutive)Newar272.2Newar1Shakya 89SH-KNw5.7.1 3
147932m,2727547parɨ-tsuʔu<child> newborn infant sacrificed in olden times to the gods ofDumi772.3.3Central Kiranti1Driem 93 DumiSVD-Dum0
195038m,2727561jɑ⁵⁵dʐɛ⁵⁵childErsu343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC295.180
422972m,m,2727,m1811(e⁵⁵le⁵⁵tsə³³) tʃhə⁵⁵embrace a child cheek to cheekv.Guiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1575.160
195012m,m,2727595e⁵⁵le⁵⁵tsi³³childGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC295.170
353694m,m,27271811e⁵⁵le⁵⁵tsə³³childnGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0169.160
1972562727595tsi⁵³sonGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC339.170
35636727271811tsi⁵⁵sonnGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0220.160
35636627271810tɕue²⁴sonnMuya343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0220.150
19725527271136tɕye³⁵sonMuya [Minyak]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC339.150
35636127271805tsø³⁵sonnPumi (Jiulong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0220.100
3565182727,m1805tsø⁵⁵dzə̃⁵⁵son-in-lawnPumi (Jiulong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0223.100
35636027271853tsy⁵⁵sonnPumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0220.090
35368727271853tʃə̂¹³childnPumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0169.090
19725427271306tsy⁵⁵sonPumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC339.110
19501027271306tʃə̃¹³childPumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC295.110
19727827271309tsu̵⁵³sonPumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC339.100
1974312727,m1309tsu̵⁵⁵dzã⁵³son-in-lawPumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC342.100
19503427271309tɕɪ̃³⁵childPumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC295.100
337622727,5471315tsɯ-meson-in-lawQiang (ChiuTzuYing)343.2Qiangic1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR1530
337632727,5471315tsɯ-mjason-in-lawQiang (ChiuTzuYing)343.2Qiangic1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR1530
511810m,27271996qà tɕídote on (child)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang23920
50688027271996tɕìsonQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang2770
5068852727,5471996tɕì miàson-in-lawQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang2800
5067452727,m1996tɕí bíchildQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang2100
3536862727,m1852tʃuj mɪchildnQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0169.080
35635927271852tʃɪsonnQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0220.080
3565162727,5471852tʃɪ miɛson-in-lawnQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0223.080
19727727271320tɕisonQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC339.80
1950332727,m1320tɕiː michildQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC295.80
375212727,16321316tʂə◦ɹaquwombQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun J 86 MawoJS-Mawo0
506746m,m,27271997kɛ̀ bʐì tsɨ̀childQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang2100
50687927271997tsɨ̀sonQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang2770
5068862727,5471997tsɨ̀ miàson-in-lawQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang2800
19725327271323tʃɿ³³sonQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC339.90
1974062727,5471323tʃɿ⁵⁵ma³¹son-in-lawQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC342.90
130614p,1733,2727,1612617ta◦po◦tso fkəmwombrGyalrong (Northern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rNQSHK-rGNQ10.4.80
197279p,27271340tə tsasonrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC339.120
356362p,27271806tə tsɑsonnrGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0220.110
331989p,27271797tɐ-tʃusonCaodeng783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 CaoJS-Caodeng0
2878872727,547201tsɑ³¹mɑ³¹son-in-lawAchang (Lianghe)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
1974212727,547200tsɔ³¹moʔ³¹son-in-lawAchang (Longchuan)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC342.410
3565362727,5471824tsɔ³¹mɔʔ³¹son-in-lawnAchang (Longchuan)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0223.280
2870632727,547207tsaʔ³¹maʔ³¹son-in-lawAchang (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
3565372727,5471825tsɔ³¹mɔʔ⁵⁵son-in-lawnAchang (Xiandao)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0223.290
3565402727,5471829tă³¹maʔ⁵⁵son-in-lawnBola (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0223.320
3565352727,5471823tθɑ⁵⁵mɛʔ⁴son-in-lawnBurmese (Rangoon)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0223.270
1974462727,5471428tθɑ⁵⁵mɛʔ⁴⁴son-in-lawBurmese (Spoken Rangoon)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC342.400
3565392727,5471828tsɔ̆³⁵mɔʔ³¹son-in-lawnLangsu (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0223.310
15460681,2727886mjɔʔ³¹ tso³³pupilLashi446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 LashDQ-Lashi3.4.2.20
156592727,679886tso³³ sɔ̱t⁵⁵wombLashi446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 LashDQ-Lashi10.4.80
3565412727,5471830tsə̆³³mɔʔ⁵⁵son-in-lawnLeqi (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0223.330
15206681,27271024mjɔʔ³¹ tsɔ³¹pupilMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 LangDQ-Langsu3.4.2.20
154072727,6791024tsɔ³⁵ sat⁵⁵wombMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 LangDQ-Langsu10.4.80
1974222727,5471034tsɔ̆³⁵mɔʔ³¹son-in-lawMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC342.430
3565382727,5471827tso²¹moʔ⁵⁵son-in-lawnAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0223.300
1974472727,5471693tsŏ²¹moʔ⁵⁵son-in-lawAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC342.420
3289552727,2727481tsi̯əg/tsi:son / daughter / child;young of animalsChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Karlgren 57 GSRGSR964a-j0
200322727469dzi̯əgchildChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0Chou 72ACST964a-j0

Chinese comparandum

子 OC *tsi̯əg, GSR #964a-j ‘son, daughter, child; young of animals’; Schuessler 2007:633 *tsəʔ; B & S 2011: *tsəʔ; Mand. .
字 OC *dz’i̯əg, GSR #964n-o ‘to breed, love’; Schuessler 2007:633 *dzəh; B & S 2011: *mə‑dzə‑s {mə‑dzə(ʔ)‑s}; Mand. .

慈 OC *dz’i̯əg, GSR #966j ‘loving, kind’; Schuessler 2007:633 *dzə; B & S 2011: *dzə; Mand. .

在 943i-k *dz’əg dzˁəʔ {[dz]ˁəʔ} zài
存 OC *dz’wən, GSR #432a ‘be among, exist, survive, maintain’; Schuessler 2007:200 *dzə̂n; B & S 2011: *dzˁən {[dz]ˁə[n]}; Mand. cún.

栽 OC *tsəg, GSR #943y ‘plant (v.)’; Schuessler 2007:599 *tsə̂; B & S 2011: *tsˁə {[ts]ˁə}; Mand. zāi.
載 OC *tsəg, GSR #943a’-b’ ‘initiate, start work; undertaking, achievement’; Schuessler 2007:599 *tsə̂h; B & S 2011: *(tsˁəʔ‑s {[ts]ˁəʔ‑s}; Mand. zài.
栽 OC *dz’əg, GSR #943y ‘board (v.); erect building frames’; Schuessler 2007:600 *tsə̂h; B & S 2011: *tsˁəʔ‑s {[ts]ˁəʔ‑s}; Mand. zài.

載 OC *tsəg, GSR #943a’-b’ ‘load, carry, pour, fill; conveyance’; Schuessler 2007:600 *tsə̂h; B & S 2011: *tsˁəʔ‑s {[ts]ˁəʔ‑s}; Mand. zài.
載 OC *dz’əg, GSR #943a’-b’ ‘load (v.); load (n.)’; Schuessler 2007:600 *dzə̂h; B & S 2011: *m‑tsˁəʔ‑s {[m‑ts]ˁəʔ‑s}; Mand. zài.

才 OC *dz’əg, GSR #943a-f ‘talent, ability’; B & S 2011: *dzˤə {(Cə.)[dz]ˤə}; Mand. cái.
材 OC *dz’əg, GSR #943g ‘timber, material’; B & S 2011: *Cə.dzˤə {[Cə.dz]ˤə}; Mand. cái.
財 OC *dz’əg, GSR #943h ‘wealth’; B & S 2011: *dzˤə {[dz]ˤə}; Mand. cái.



^ 1.
[Source note] /tso²-lo³-uʔ³/ ?
^ 2.
< IA khara- ‘donkey’.
^ 3.
K. P. Malla (p.c. 2007) analyzes this form as consisting of te ‘navel’, pu ‘seed, round thing’, ca (preferably chaa) ‘DIMINUTIVE; child’. Newar chaa appears in compounds like ma‑chaa ‘a child’ and khi‑chaa ‘a dog’.