3.0 Natural Objects, Plants, Foods > 3.2 Natural Objects > 3.2.1 Weather and seasons

#2465 PTB *muːŋ ⪤ *r/s-muːk FOGGY / DARK / SULLEN / MENACING / THUNDER

Reconstructed mesoroots below:

This root seems to be allofamically related to #522 PTB *s‑mun DARK.

rnanalysislgidreflexglossgfnlanguagegrpidgrpnogrpgeneticcitationsrcabbrsrcidrn
723112465182muːksullen*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Benedict 72 STCSTC3620
197652465174muːŋdark*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Chou 72ACST457j-l0
200092465174muːŋcloudy / dark / sullen*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Chou 72ACST902d0
723122465182muːŋcloudy / dark*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Benedict 72 STCSTC3620
5154802465,24652012muːŋ ⪤ r/|s-|muːkovercast / foggy / dark / sullen*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB6030
200302465174r-|muːkfog(gy) / dark / dull*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Chou 72ACST947t0
723062465182r-|muːkdark / dull*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Benedict 72 STCSTC3570
711862465984muːkdull (color)Lushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1Benedict 72 STCSTC3570
61942124652229[h]mukTHUNDER*Central Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNIII.2620
6189926312,24652228tsəŋ-mukTHUNDER*Ao631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.2190
2601106312,2465270tsung◦mukthundernAo (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
6201656312,24652226tsəŋ³muk¹thundern.Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.2190
6179846312,2465275³tsɯŋ¹mukthundern.Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT11360
2601116312,2465273tsung◦mukthundernAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
4513806312,24651963tsəŋ◦mukthundern.Ao (Mongsen: Mangmetong)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Coupe 07 AoARC-GMA0
2601346312,24651640ching◦mukthundernYacham-Tengsa631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
6186456312,24652206tsüng◦mukthunderYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Kumar 73 YimBBK-Yim400
792632465161mukthunder*Northern Naga121.7.2Northern Naga/Konyakian1French 83WTF-PNN5680
260123m,24651188rang◦mokthundernNocte841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
260132m,24651489rong◦mukthundernTangsa (Moshang)841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
260112m,2465429long◦makthundernChang851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
260126m,24651281vang◦mokthundernPhom851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
488012m,24651978ʒaŋ⁵⁵muk³³thunderPhom851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Burling 98 PhomBP-PPWL0
427435m,m,24651814lă³¹mu³¹ muŋ³³cloudy, be (sky) / overcastv.Jingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1669.190
712192465685muŋcloudy; sullen, sulkyJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Benedict 72 STCSTC3620
3347152465679muŋ³³cloudyJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Liu 84JZ-Jingpo0
2226182465690muŋ³³cloudyJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC836.470
593872465684muʔthunder, cloudyJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB890
3038982465685muʔ (high tone)thunder, cloudyJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Benedict 72 STCSTC77n2360
3339562465679muʔ⁵⁵thunderJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Liu 84JZ-Jingpo0
34536924651814muʔ⁵⁵thundernJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0008.190
1802372465690muʔ⁵⁵thunderJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC5.470
4080752465,m,m1814muʔ⁵⁵ a³¹tʃe̱ʔ⁵⁵break (thunderbolt)v.Jingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1247.190
4081172465,m1814muʔ⁵⁵ kuŋ³¹thunderv.Jingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1248.190
3346292465,m679muʔ⁵⁵kuŋ³¹thundervJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Liu 84JZ-Jingpo0
452106m,24651964kə◦muʔthunderSak401.7.3.2Asakian1Huziwara 08 SakHK-Sak2540
452107m,24651964kə◦muʔ=məríŋthundervSak401.7.3.2Asakian1Huziwara 08 SakHK-Sak254a0
1690472465,s1095muk◦pacloudTsangla (Central)222.1.2Bodic1Andvik 93EA-Tsh480
1802692465,s1088muk pacloudTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC6.70
2965632465,s1085muk⁵⁵pa⁵⁵fogTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
2965572465,s1085muk⁵⁵pa⁵⁵cloudTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
1805752465,s1088muk◦pafogTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC12.70
2974132465,s1089muk-pacloudTsangla (Tilang)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
3453072465,s1851muk pacloudnMotuo Menba222.1.2Bodic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0007.070
3457712465,s1851muk pafognMotuo Menba222.1.2Bodic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0016.070
3457692465,s1848rmuk kwafognTibetan (Alike)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0016.050
1805982465,s1550hmək kwafogTibetan (Amdo:Bla-brang)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC12.40
360702465,s1584hməg-wæfogTibetan (Amdo:Zeku)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun J 85 AmdoJS-Amdo2720
1805742465,s1585rm̥ək kafogTibetan (Amdo:Zeku)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC12.50
3457672465,s1826m̥u⁵⁵pa⁵³fognTibetan (Batang)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0016.030
2692932465,s701muk◦pāqcloudTibetan (Jirel)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0800
1805732465,s1380m̥u⁵⁵pa⁵³fogTibetan (Khams:Dege)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC12.30
1805972465,s1557muk⁵³pa⁵³fogTibetan (Lhasa)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC12.20
3457662465,s1815muk⁵⁵pə⁵⁵fognTibetan (Lhasa)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0016.020
2692942465,s1402muk◦pāqcloudTibetan (Sherpa)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0800
470724651562rmu-baskyTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3010
593912465,s1577rmu-bafogTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB890
593812465,s1577rmugs-padense fog; inertnessTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB890
3042302465,s1578rmugs-padense, fogTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC110n3080
711812465,s1578rmugs-padense fog; inertnessTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC3570
378542465,s1575rmugs.pafogTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun J 85 TbGlJS-Tib2720
2591562465,s1564rmugs◦pamistnTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
3110424651572smagdark, darknessTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Matisoff 83 TILJAM-TIL370
593822465,s1577smug-podark red, purple-brownTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB890
711822465,s1578smug-podark red, purple-brownTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC3570
3457682465,s1837hməχ kwafognTibetan (Xiahe)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0016.040
593832465899mukfoggyLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB890
3038272465900mukfoggy, mistyLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Benedict 72 STCSTC75n2310
593842465,2465899muk mukdarkness, dullnessLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB890
711842465,2465900muk mukdullness, darknessLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Benedict 72 STCSTC3570
3038282465,2465900muk-mukdullness, darknessLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Benedict 72 STCSTC75n2310
71218m,2465900so muŋ (=so muk)cloudy weatherLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Benedict 72 STCSTC3620
801542465,m999mɯk² sɯl²fogManang (Gyaru)232.1.4Tamangish1Nagano 84 ManYN-Man2520
801532465,s999mɯʔ² pa²cloudManang (Gyaru)232.1.4Tamangish1Nagano 84 ManYN-Man2510
207742465,s1002³muk◦pəcloudManang (Prakaa)232.1.4Tamangish1Hoshi 84HM-Prak01530
207752465,s1002³muk◦pəfogManang (Prakaa)232.1.4Tamangish1Hoshi 84HM-Prak01540
2692882465,s1457muk◦pācloudTamang (Sahu)232.1.4Tamangish1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0800
1229912465,s1464muk◦pacloudTamang (Sahu)232.1.4Tamangish1Taylor 72 TmVoSIL-Sahu1.800
26928924651520mohcloudThakali232.1.4Tamangish1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0800
6724624651531mohcloudThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak1.800
67574m,24651531sor◦mɔfogThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak5.A.400
48499724651977muk-thunder, be loud noise, rumblevi.Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 00 ChepangRC-DOC0
634972465,m449muk-ʔoloudChepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 72 CVocSIL-Chep12.B.290
2617042465,m441muk.ʔoloud (noise)adjChepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN12b.290
4849982473,24651977mus muk-thundervi.Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 00 ChepangRC-DOC0
642672473,2465,m449mus muk-nathunder (verb)Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 72 CVocSIL-Chep5.B.160
642662473,2465,m449mus-muk-ʔothunderChepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 72 CVocSIL-Chep5.A.440
4834252484,24651977nyam muk-thundervi.Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 00 ChepangRC-DOC0
3457792465,m1810mu⁵⁵pæ⁵³fognMuya343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0016.150
506291m,24651996dá mù̥fogQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang180
506260m,24651996dá mù̥cloudQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang70
50937224651996múdarkQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang14610
506292m,24651997dá mòfogQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang180
506261m,24651997dá mòcloudQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang70
50937124651997mòdarkQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang14610
510692681,m,m,24651997mù qɛ́-dà mòhave dim eyesight [eye-cloud]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang19750
186212p,24651340ta rmokdragonrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC122.120
180245p,24651340ta rmokthunderrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC5.120
218495p,2465,m,m1340ta rmok kə pathundervrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC755.120
345361p,24651806tɑ rmokthundernrGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0008.110
360951p,24651806tɑ rmokdragonnrGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0306.110
408109p,2465,m,m1806tɑ rmok kə pɑthunderv.rGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1248.110
329794p,24651796ta rmokthunderrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Nagano 97 GyQGyarong.Nag3.510
329243p,24651796ta◦r |mokdragonrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Nagano 97 GyQGyarong.Nag11.100
332876p,24651799ta-rmokdragonrGBenzhen783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 rGBJS-rGBenzhe0
333727p,24651799ta-rmokthunderrGBenzhen783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 rGBJS-rGBenzhe0
333728p,2465,m,m1799ta-rmok kə-pathundervrGBenzhen783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 rGBJS-rGBenzhe0
50139424651982muʔthunderRawang384Nungic1LaPolla 03RJL-Rawang80
5026872465,m,m1982muʔ gɯm³¹ mɛ³³thunderRawang384Nungic1LaPolla 03RJL-Rawang12450
4081192465,m1817mu⁵⁵dɑʔ⁵³thunderv.Nung384Nungic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1248.210
2185112465,m269mɯ⁵⁵dɑʔ⁵³thundervAnong384Nungic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC755.440
1802622465,3629537mŭt⁵⁵dɯ³¹|ɹɯ̆ŋ⁵³thunderTrung [Dulong]384Nungic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC5.460
34537024651816muʔ⁵⁵thundernDulong384Nungic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0008.200
4081182465,24651816muʔ⁵⁵muʔ⁵⁵thunderv.Dulong384Nungic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1248.200
2988582465,3629540mŭʔ⁵⁵dɯ³¹|ɹɯ̆ŋ⁵³thunderTrung [Dulong] (Nujiang)384Nungic1Sun H 82 DulJZ-Dulong0
2995812465,3629540mŭʔ⁵⁵dɯ³¹|ɹɯ̆ŋ⁵³thunderv.Trung [Dulong] (Nujiang)384Nungic1Sun H 82 DulJZ-Dulong0
4386972465406hmûiŋvery darkBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
712202465409hmuiŋdull, downcastBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 72 STCSTC3620
712212465409hmuìŋvery darkBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 72 STCSTC3620
2397942465392muikdarkBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
4375332465406muikdark; ignorantBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
593852465407muikdarkBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB890
711852465409muikdark; ignorantBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 72 STCSTC3570
34534324651841mo³¹cloudnLahu (Lancang)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0007.430
34580724651841mɔ³⁵zɔ³³mɑ³³fognLahu (Lancang)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0016.430
1802812465851mo³¹cloudLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC6.330
1805872465,m851mo³¹fi⁵⁴fogLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC12.330
3019152465,m856mo⁷fi⁵cloudLahu (Yellow)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
3019222465,m856mo⁷tsɿ⁴fogLahu (Yellow)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
43501424651120moi⁴fogMpi486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Srinuan 76SD-MPD0

Chinese comparandum

霧 OC *mi̯ug; GSR #1109t ‘fog, mist’; B & S 2011: *kə.mok‑s {kə.m(r)[o]k‑s}; Mand. .

霂霢

海 OC *χməg, GSR #947x-y ‘sea’; Schuessler 2007:270 *hmə̂ʔ; B & S 2011: *m̥ˁəʔ (dial. m̥ˁ‑x‑); Mand. hǎi.
晦 OC *χmwəg, GSR #947t ‘dark, obscure, reticent; darkness; last day of moon’; Schuessler 2007:270 *hmə̂ʔ; B & S 2011: *m̥ˁək‑s; Mand. huì.

冥 OC *mieng, GSR #841a ‘dark, darken’; B & S 2011: *mˁeŋ; Mand. míng.
瞑 OC *mieng ~ mien, GSR #841b ‘shut eyes, dizzy, confused’; Mand. míng.
瞢 OC *mwəng ~ mi̯ŭng, GSR #902d ‘darkened, despondent’; Mand. měng.

蒙 OC *mung, GSR #1181a ‘cover (v.)’; Schuessler 2007:380 *môŋ; B & S 2011: *mˁoŋ; Mand. méng.
矇 OC *mung, GSR #1181c ‘blind’; Schuessler 2007:380 *môŋ; B & S 2011: (*mˁoŋ); Mand. méng.