3.0 Natural Objects, Plants, Foods > 3.2 Natural Objects > 3.2.12 Fire > 3.2.12.2 Fire, flames, and burnt things

#2361 PTB *kəw-n/t SMOKE

Reconstructed mesoroots below:

This root could take either the *‑n suffix (as in Sunwar, Newar, and Chinese) or the *‑t suffix (as in Jingpho).

Many languages have binomes meaning SMOKE, where the first element is #2136 PTB *mey FIRE. This first element is sometimes “prefixized” to simple m‑, as in Ergong/Daofu.

Many Loloish languages (e.g., Lahu mû‑qhɔ̂) have a similar but different formation where the first element is from #2473 PTB *r‑məw SKY / HEAVENS / CLOUDS.

Lahu has a doublet derived from this etymon: mû‑qhɔ̂ ‘smoke’ < PLB *kəw²qhɔ̀ʔ‑lá ‘ashes’ < PLB *kutᴸ

rnanalysislgidreflexglossgfnlanguagegrpidgrpnogrpgeneticcitationsrcabbrsrcidrn
77162361175kuwsmoken.*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3020
722052361182kuwsmoke*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
197662361174kəwsmoke*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Chou 72ACST461a-c0
77172361175kəwsmoken.*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3020
52921123612032kəw-|n/tsmoke*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Mortensen 12 TkDRM-Tk0
51517723612012kəw-|n/|tsmoke*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB5950
2833852361173mə-|kɯsmoke*Tani51.1.1Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST3760
158950p,2136,2361285jà-mu mù-|kúsmoke (fire)Apatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
158949p,2136,2361286ja-mu muk'smokeApatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1743042361287mu-|kusmokeApatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST0
1576762361285mu-|kupuff out smokeApatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1589482361286mu-|kusmokeApatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1601932361286mu-|kutobaccoApatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1601902361285mù-|kutobaccoApatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1601942361,p,402286mu-|ku a-nətobacco (~leaf)Apatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1589522361,m286mu-|ku tãsmoke (tobacco)vApatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1743052361333mɯ-|kɯsmokeBengni731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST0
1589532361334mɯ-|kɯsmokenBengni731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
34594023611820mɯ |kɯːsmokenBokar731.1.1.1Western Tani1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.240
36833423611820mɯ |kɯːcigarette / tobacconBokar731.1.1.1Western Tani1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0455.240
1743062361360mɯ-|kɯsmokeBokar731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST0
1589542361365mɯ-|kɯsmokenBokar731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1589572361,m365mɯ-|kɯ tɯŋsmokevBokar731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1573902361,m,m365mɯ-|kɯ tɯŋ-duŋpipeBokar731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1601922361365mɯ-|kɯːtobaccoBokar731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1522112361365mɯ-|kɯːcigaretteBokar731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1910512361368mɯ |kɯːtobaccoBokar Lhoba731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC217.510
1823302361368mɯ |kɯːsmokeBokar Lhoba731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.510
444522361564mikɤtobacco leafGalo731.1.1.1Western Tani1Das Gupta 63 GalKDG-IGL0
448372361564mikɤsmokeGalo731.1.1.1Western Tani1Das Gupta 63 GalKDG-IGL0
49448423611979`mɨkəsmokyadj.Galo731.1.1.1Western Tani1Rɨbaa,Post,et al. 09GLDC-GED0
49448223611979`mɨkəsmoken.Galo731.1.1.1Western Tani1Rɨbaa,Post,et al. 09GLDC-GED0
2219123611078mɯkkɯsmokeMiri, Hill731.1.1.1Western Tani1Simon 76 MiriIMS-HMLG0
4627723611444mɯkɯsmokeTagin731.1.1.1Western Tani1Das Gupta 83 TagKDG-Tag0
17430823611251mɯk-|kɯsmokePadam [Abor]741.1.1.2Eastern Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST0
4412872361196muiküsmokePadam-Mishing [Abor-Miri]741.1.1.2Eastern Tani1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
1522122361498mə-|kicigaretteDamu741.1.1.2Eastern Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1601962361498mə-|kiːtobacco leafDamu741.1.1.2Eastern Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
1010m,23611070ami mik-|kismokeMilang741.1.1.2Eastern Tani1Tayeng 76 MilAT-MPB0
198023611070mik-|kismokeMilang741.1.1.2Eastern Tani1Tayeng 76 MilAT-MPB0
17430723611079mik-|kismokeMishing [Miri]741.1.1.2Eastern Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST0
7070323611076mikkismokeMishing [Miri]741.1.1.2Eastern Tani1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
70702m,2361,2361527nəmiŋ-khu ⪤ -khausmokeDigaro61.1.2Deng1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
5004752361a1920khuuFUMES / STEAM / SMOKEn*Chin81.2Kuki-Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4440
5008202361b1920may-|khuuSMOKEn*Chin81.2Kuki-Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
443751p,2361a1930a khufumePaite681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4440
445443p,2361b1930a khufumePaite681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
4454442136,23611927mē hkōsmokeSizang681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
4454422136,23611926mêy khùusmokeThado681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
4454412361b1925khu¹smokeTiddim681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
4454462136,23611948meˊˊ-kʻüˊˊsmokeAsho691.2.1.2Southern Plains Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
4437522361a1928khusmokeCho (Mindat)691.2.1.2Southern Plains Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4440
4454452361b1928khusmokeCho (Mindat)691.2.1.2Southern Plains Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
4454472136,23611929may-khueesmokeKhumi691.2.1.2Southern Plains Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
4437492361a1923khûufumeLai (Falam)701.2.2Central Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4440
4437482361a1947khùufume, steam, vapor, smokeLai (Hakha)701.2.2Central Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4440
4454392361b1923khûufume, smokeLai (Falam)701.2.2Central Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
4454382136,23611947mây-khǔufire smokeLai (Hakha)701.2.2Central Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
4437502361a1924khûsmoke, steamLushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4440
4454402136,23611924měi khûsmokeLushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
707072136,2361984mei-khusmokeLushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
4454372136,23611921méi-khúsmokeLakher [Mara]711.2.3Maraic1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC7890
2598422136,23611019mei◦khusmokenMaring111.3“Naga” Areal Group0Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
61924023612229khuʔSMOKE*Central Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNIII.0810
618851m,2361,m2228mu-khu-ləjSMOKE*Ao631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.0780
251299m,2361270mo◦kotobaccoAo (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
246753m,2361,m270mo◦ko◦bopipe (tobacco)Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2598322136,2361,s270mo◦ko◦züsmokenAo (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL 1
619875m,2361,m2226mu²ku²zə²smoken.Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.0780
619882m,23612245mu³kuʔ¹cigarette, tobaccon.Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 SuppCNDWB-CNSD0
5061352136,23611992mú◦kʰùʔsmokev.Ao (Mongsen)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Temsunungsang 09 AoTT-APPA130
618735m,23612246mú◦kùʔcigarette, tobaccon.Ao (Mongsen: Khensa)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 SuppCNDWB-CNSD0
259833m,2361273ma◦küsmokenAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
251300m,2361273mu◦khutobaccoAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2598342136,2361,m273mu◦ku◦lismokenAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
4512602136,2361,m1963mu◦khu◦lismoken.Ao (Mongsen: Mangmetong)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Coupe 07 AoARC-GMA0
6202532136,23612231mi³-khuʔ²cigaretten.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNIII.0810
620438m,23612231mo³-khuʔ²tobaccon.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNIII.0810
251305m,2361963me◦khutobaccoLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
246759m,2361,6073963me◦khuku◦tongpipe (tobacco)Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
259839p,2136,p,2361963o◦mi-e◦khusmokenLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
29302136,2361962³mi-²kfɯ(ʔ)smoken.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1430
47242136,2361962³mi²kfɯ(ʔ)smoken.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3020
2598472136,23611364mi◦khusmokenSangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
618207m,2361,m2205mü◦khu◦tsongtobaccoSangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Kumar 73 SangBBK-Sangtam0
251314m,2361,m1364mü◦khü◦tsutobaccoSangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2598532136,23611672mo◦khüsmokenYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
6184792136,23612206mo◦khühsmokeYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Kumar 73 YimBBK-Yim620
47252136,23611671¹mo◦(¹)|kɯʔsmoken.Yimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3020
2598302136,2361252mi◦kusmokenAngami (Khonoma)651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2598312136,2361254mi◦khusmokenAngami (Kohima)651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2598402136,23611017mi◦khesmokenMao651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
259846m,23611335ma◦khusmokenRengma651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2598452136,23611301mei◦khitsmokenPuiron641.3.3Zeme Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2598442136,23611347mai◦khousmokenRongmei / Nruanghmei641.3.3Zeme Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
52898323612031kʰutsmoke*Tangkhulic661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-Tk5490
525481m,m,23612023ʔa-mu-kʰuʔsmokeHuishu661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-TkNature.0660
524983m,23612022mə-kʰutsmokeKachai661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-TkNature.0660
30655523611470khutsmokeTangkhul661.3.4Tangkhulic1Bhat 69 TNVBhat-TNV970
30655423611470khɯsmokeTangkhul661.3.4Tangkhulic1Bhat 69 TNVBhat-TNV970
2598492136,23611471mei◦khutsmokenTangkhul661.3.4Tangkhulic1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
620879m,23612024ma-kfɯsmokeTusom661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-TkNature.0660
5258652136,23612025mej-kʰutsmokeUkhrul661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-Tk0
53330823612064kusmoke*Bodo-Garo161.7.1Bodo-Garo1Burling 59 PBoRB-PB4440
55634m,2361803ha-kusmokeKokborok801.7.1.1Bodo1Tripuri 88PT-Kok0
70706m,2361579wal-kusmokeGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
503446p,23611987e◦kũsmoken.Deori/Deuri831.7.1.4Deori1Jacquesson 05 DeuriFJ-LD0
294128p,2361514e◦kusmokeDeori/Deuri831.7.1.4Deori1Brown 95WBB-Deuri690
791822361161kʰəwsmoke*Northern Naga121.7.2Northern Naga/Konyakian1French 83WTF-PNN5530
259843m,23611188van◦khusmokenNocte841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
292723611488khʌuʔsmoken.Tangsa841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1430
2929m,23611102mhɛ́-khwúʔsmoken.Tangsa (Moshang)841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1430
259835m,2361429wan◦kükhsmokenChang851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
29282361786-¹²kaᴜʔsmoken.Khiamngan851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1430
259851m,23611628van◦kutsmokenWancho851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
707082152,2361685wan-khutsmokenJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
707092152,2361,2361685wan-khut khusmokev.Jingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
706982361379khusmokeBunan202.1.1Western Himalayish0Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
54196923612108khùsmoken.Byangsi202.1.1Western Himalayish0Sharma 2003SRS-TBLUP4510
54301523612109khusmokeChaudangsi202.1.1Western Himalayish0Krishan 2003SK-TBLUP3560
54399923612110khusmokeDarma202.1.1Western Himalayish0Krishan 2003SK-TBLUP3630
54693723612113khusmoken.Rongpo202.1.1Western Himalayish0Sharma 2003SRS-TBLUP7210
7069723611539khusmokeThebor202.1.1Western Himalayish0Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
706962136,23611099mu-gusmokeTsangla (Central)222.1.2Bodic1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
1690552136,23611095mu◦gusmokeTsangla (Central)222.1.2Bodic1Andvik 93EA-Tsh560
1823092136,23611088mu gusmokeTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.70
2965932136,23611085mu¹³hu⁵⁵smokeTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
2974402136,23611089mu-gismokeTsangla (Tilang)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
2979812136,23611093me³⁵gun⁵⁵smokeTshona (Wenlang)222.1.2Bodic1Lu 86 CuoMJZ-CNMenba0
1823332136,23611092me¹³kun⁵⁵smokeTshona (Mama)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.60
3459232136,23611851mu gusmokenMotuo Menba222.1.2Bodic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.070
345922m,23611850me³⁵kun⁵⁵smokenCuona Menba222.1.2Bodic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.060
2693012136,2361596mi◦guqsmokenGurung232.1.4Tamangish1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0810
646452136,2361604mi◦guqsmokeGurung (Ghachok)232.1.4Tamangish1Glover 72 GuVoSIL-Gur1.810
799132136,2361999myᴇ² kɯ²smokeManang (Gyaru)232.1.4Tamangish1Nagano 84 ManYN-Man1020
207702136,23611002³myu◦kusmokeManang (Prakaa)232.1.4Tamangish1Hoshi 84HM-Prak01490
2693022136,23611457'ming◦kusmokenTamang (Sahu)232.1.4Tamangish1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0810
1229922136,23611464'miŋ◦kusmokeTamang (Sahu)232.1.4Tamangish1Taylor 72 TmVoSIL-Sahu1.810
2693032136,23611520mi◦kusmokenThakali232.1.4Tamangish1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0810
684272136,23611531mi◦kusmoken.Thakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak1.810
890423611176smokeNewar (Dolakhali)272.2Newar1Genetti 90 DolaCG-Dolak0
913723611177smokeNewar (Kathmandu)272.2Newar1Genetti 90 KathCG-Kath0
32395723611856smokeNewar272.2Newar1Genetti 90 NeQ3CG-NewariQ30
26931123611166ku̩smokenNewar272.2Newar1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0810
1976823611165kɨnsmokeNewar272.2Newar1Chou 72ACST461a-c0
30476223611175kɨnsmokeNewar272.2Newar1Benedict 72 STCSTC159n4290
4778582136,2361,m1975mi◦khu◦maŋsmokeAthpare (Rai)312.3.1Eastern Kiranti1Ebert 97 AthpareKE-GA0
707012136,2361918me-kusmokeLimbu312.3.1Eastern Kiranti1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
751772136,2361911miːk◦khusmokeLimbu312.3.1Eastern Kiranti1Michailovsky 89 LmBM-Lim0
29252136,2361,m910miː◦khuː◦masmoken.Limbu312.3.1Eastern Kiranti1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1430
29262136,2361,m910mi◦ghuː◦sasmoken.Limbu312.3.1Eastern Kiranti1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1430
29212136,2361,m910mi◦khuː◦masmoken.Limbu312.3.1Eastern Kiranti1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1430
29222136,2361910[miː◦khuʔ]smoken.Limbu312.3.1Eastern Kiranti1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1430
4997412136,23611873mæk◦khusmokenYamphu312.3.1Eastern Kiranti1Rutgers 98RR-Yamphu555.260
3447132136,23611801mi◦khUsmokenBantawa762.3.2Southern Kiranti1Rai 85 BnDsNKR-Bant0
707002361,m305ku-nismokeBahing302.3.4Western Kiranti1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
706992361,m648ku-lusmokeHayu302.3.4Western Kiranti1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
1976723611432kunsmokeSunwar302.3.4Western Kiranti1Chou 72ACST461a-c0
26930923611433kunsmokenSunwar302.3.4Western Kiranti1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0810
30476123611440kunsmokeSunwar302.3.4Western Kiranti1Benedict 72 STCSTC159n4290
49908m,23611545kuy◦kusmokeThulung302.3.4Western Kiranti1Allen 75NJA-Thulung0
47931423611977-kuʔsmokenb.Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 00 ChepangRC-DOC0
640332136,2361449hmeʔ-kuʔsmokeChepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 72 CVocSIL-Chep1.810
2693122136,2361441hmeʔ.kuʔsmokenChepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0810
4793152136,23611977hmeʔ.kuʔsmoken.Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 00 ChepangRC-DOC0
4876112136,23611977hmeʔ.kuʔsmoken.Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 00 ChepangRC-DOC0
4793042361,m1977ku.ninifilling with smokeonom.Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 00 ChepangRC-DOC0
47931623611977kuʔ-affect with smoke, cover with dust, soot, etc.vit.Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 00 ChepangRC-DOC0
4851562136,23611977mhe.kusmoke (B)n.Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 00 ChepangRC-DOC0
2693052136,2361759mih◦kwi:smokenKham282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0810
1823392136,2361561mɛ³³ŋkhɛ⁵⁵smokeErsu343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.180
430886m,2361,m1811(mø³¹xø⁵⁵) ɕu⁵⁵smoke / fumigatev.Guiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.160
1823132136,2361595mø³³xø⁵³smokeGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.170
3459322136,23611811mø³¹xø⁵⁵smokenGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.160
3459342136,23611813me³³nkhɯ⁵³smokenLyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.180
430888m,m,23611813mɯʴ³³de⁵³nkhɯ³¹smoke / fumigatev.Lyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.180
345931m,23611810mu³³khə⁵³smokenMuya343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.150
430885m,23611810tũ²⁴khə̃³³smoke / fumigatev.Muya343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.150
182312m,23611136mũ³⁵khɯ⁵⁵smokeMuya [Minyak]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.150
182314m,23611147mu⁵⁵ŋkhu³³smokeNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.190
430911m,23611844mu⁵³nkhu³¹smoke / fumigatev.Namuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.460
345962m,23611844mu⁵⁵nkhu³¹smokenNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.460
345925p,23611853s◦khiɯ¹³smokenPumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.090
430879m,23611853tə⁵⁵s◦khiu⁵⁵smoke / fumigatev.Pumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.090
182311p,23611306s◦khiɯ¹³smokePumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.110
18233523611309xio³⁵smokePumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.100
5075172361,1006,341996khuà pià tshɨ̀fatty meatQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang5880
5121072361,23611996khú khúsmoke meatQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25050
5062972136,23611996mù khúsmokeQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang210
5075161006,34,23611996pià tshɨ̀ khuàfatty meatQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang5880
1823342136,23611320mu xusmokeQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.80
3459242136,23611852mu xu̥smokenQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.080
4308782136,2361,m,m1852mu xu̥ tə tʂhɑsmoke / fumigatev.Qiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.080
430914m,2136,23611852tu mu xu̥smoke / fumigatev.Qiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.080
507561m,23611997mù khuɛ́tobaccoQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang611 2
507466m,23611997mù qhuétobaccoQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang568 3
182310m,23611323mə³¹khuə⁵⁵smokeQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.90
18233823611699khu⁵³smokeQueyu (Yajiang) [Zhaba]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.160
345929p,23611808ʂ◦khɯ⁵⁵smokenQueyu (Xinlong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.130
3459332136,23611812ȵɛ³³khuɛ⁵³smokenXumi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.170
4308872136,23611812ȵɛ³³khuɛ⁵⁵smoke / fumigatev.Xumi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.170
1823402136,23611409ȵɛ³³qhuɐ⁵⁵smokeXumi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.200
3459302361,m1809khə⁵⁵li³³smokenZhaba (Daofu County)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.140
430884m,23611809ʌ³³nkhʌ⁵⁵smoke / fumigatev.Zhaba (Daofu County)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.140
3459282136,23611807m◦khəsmokenDaofu353.3rGyalrongic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.120
4308822136,23611807m◦khəsmoke / fumigatev.Daofu353.3rGyalrongic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.120
1823372136,2361,m557m◦khɯ lɯsmokeErgong (Danba)353.3rGyalrongic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.140
430881p,m,23611806kɐ snɐ khəsmoke / fumigatev.rGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.110
331957p,m,23611797kɐ-sɐ́-kʰusmoke; fumigateCaodeng783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 CaoJS-Caodeng0
345927p,23611806tɐ khəsmokenrGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.110
182336p,23611340tɐ khəsmokerGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.120
331959p,23611797tɐ́-kʰusmoke; cigarettenCaodeng783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 CaoJS-Caodeng0
329799p,23611796ta khusmokerGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Nagano 97 GyQGyarong.Nag4.130
707042136,23611205mə◦ösmokeAnong384Nungic1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
308392361143kuw²smoke*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1Matisoff 78 MLBMJAM-MLBM110
51517823612011kəw²smoke*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB5950
30887m,2361143muw² + kuw²smoke*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1Matisoff 78 MLBMJAM-MLBM590
2876612136,2361201mi³¹khɑu³⁵smokeAchang (Lianghe)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
3459442136,23611824ni³¹xau³¹smokenAchang (Longchuan)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.280
1823252136,2361200ni³¹xau³¹smokeAchang (Longchuan)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.410
2868362136,2361207mi⁵¹khau⁵⁵smokeAchang (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
345945m,23611825n̥i³¹xau³¹smokenAchang (Xiandao)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.290
43089523611825xau³¹smoke / fumigatev.Achang (Xiandao)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1743.290
3459432136,23611823mi⁵⁵kho⁵⁵smokenBurmese (Rangoon)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.270
1823502136,23611428mi⁵⁵kho⁵⁵smokeBurmese (Spoken Rangoon)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.400
305562361399kʰûismokeBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Matisoff 78 MLBMJAM-MLBM110
47122136,2361390mì-khuìsmoken.Burmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3020
707052136,2361,p,2361409mì-khuì ⪤ ă◦khuìsmokeBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 72 STCSTC2560
2598552136,2361392mī:◦khui:smokenBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
3459422136,23611822mi³kho³smokenBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.260
1823242136,2361411mi³kho³smokeBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.390
440688p,2361406ə-khûieffluvium, exhalation; smoke ( mî-khûi )Burmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
3459472136,23611828mji²¹khuk⁵⁵smokenLangsu (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.310
47182361151ko²smoken.*Loloish456.1.2Loloish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3020
117742361152ko²smoke*Loloish456.1.2Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo3330
31158723611790ko²smokePNL456.1.2Loloish1Chen 86 CSCK-CS130.0
4618472361,56061962khu²¹ɬa³³ashesYi (Liangshan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Ma 08 YiSIL-Nuosuindex0
2040432361,56061662kho²¹lo³³ashesYi (Mile)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC472.250
2040412361,56061670khɯ²¹ɬa³³ashesYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC472.210
47162473,2361830mɨ̂◦qhɔsmoken.Lahu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3020
3034482361,5606844qhɔ̀ʔ-láashesLahu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Benedict 72 STCSTC40n1310
3459592473,23611841mv⁵³qhɔ⁵³smokenLahu (Lancang)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.430
306982473,2361835mû-qhɔsmokeLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 78 MLBMJAM-MLBM590
305582473,2361835mû-qhɔ̂smokeLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 78 MLBMJAM-MLBM110
316562473,2361838mû-qhɔ̂smokeLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 74 TJLBJAM-TJLB2880
1823212473,2361851mu⁵³qhɔ⁵³smokeLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.330
3019582473,2361856mv̩³qhɔ³smokeLahu (Yellow)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
2783292473,2361946mu²¹khu²¹tobacco; smokeNLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
3459562473,23611838mu³¹khu³¹smokenLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.400
1823182473,2361942mu³¹khu³¹smokeLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.270
3029262473,2361945mu³¹khɯ³¹smokenLisu (Luquan)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Xu 86 LisuJZ-Lisu0
2863832473,2361943mu⁵-hku⁵smoken.Lisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Fraser 22JF-HLL0
47152473,2361921mù◦khùsmoken.Lisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3020
3029652473,2361951ŋ̩³¹khu³¹smokenLisu (Yongsheng)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Xu 86 LisuJZ-Lisu0
31179023611786khɯ²¹smokeSani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chen 86 CSCK-CS130.0
3459552473,23611836m̩⁵⁵khɯ¹¹smokenYi (Sani)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.390
4717p,2361226ù◦xø̀smoken.Akha486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT3020
1359272361,5606244xhà lɛ́ashesAkha (Yunnan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL2330
1359262361,5606243xhà-lɛ́ashesAkha (Thai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL2330
1419312361,5606346khà◦làashesBisu486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Bradley 9x BisuDB-Bisu0
2040462361,5606510xa³¹le⁵⁵ashesHani (Dazhai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC472.310
1359292361,5606633xhà lɛ́ashesHani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL2330
1349692361,5606633xha lɛ́ashesHani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL760
1349722361,56061299khà líashesHani (Pijo)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL760
2040712361,5606,2361,5606418kha³¹la⁵⁵; khɔ³¹li⁵⁵ashesHani (Caiyuan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC472.300
1338092361,56061115kho²lo⁶ashesMpi486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL2330
5162452473,23611999mu˧kʰv˥smokeLaze (Xiangjiao)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze1520
5135052473,23611998mv˧kʰv˧˥smokeNa (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
1823192473,23611676mv³¹khv¹³smokeNaxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.290
3459612473,23611843mɯ⁵⁵khɯ²¹smokenNaxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0019.450
1823442473,2361908mɯ⁵⁵khɯ³¹smokeNaxi (Lijiang)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC46.280
3034472361,56061736kh◦là(h)ashes*Karen507Karenic1Benedict 72 STCSTC40n1310

Chinese comparandum

熏 OC *xi̯wən~χi̯wən, GSR #461a-c ‘smoke, steam, ablaze’; B & S 2011: *qʰun {qʰu[n]}; Mand. xūn.


^ 1.
Ao mo ‘smoke’ reflects #2136 PTB *mey FIRE but shows the result of vowel harmony with the root syllable.
^ 2.
[Source note] calque ‘smoke’.
^ 3.
[Source note] calque ‘smoke’.