Allofams:
1.0 The Body > 1.5 Limbs, Joints, and Body Measures > 1.5.8 Joint > 1.5.8.4 Knee

#436 PTB *put-s ⪤ *pit-s KNEE

Reconstructed mesoroots below:

Written Tibetan pus is from *put‑s, since WT dental stops do not occur before final ‑s. There is a West Tibetan variant pis‑mo.

rnanalysislgidreflexglossgfnlanguagegrpidgrpnogrpgeneticcitationsrcabbrsrcidrn
77122436168pjutknee / knee over*Sino-Tibetan10Sino-Tibetan (previously published reconstructions)0Coblin 86WSC-SH1010
19797436174putknee*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Chou 72ACST501a-b0
8194436175putknee*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT6970
60733436181putknee*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB700
71955436182putknee*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Benedict 72 STCSTC70
77125436183putknee / knee over*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Coblin 86WSC-SH1010
5156784362012put-|sknee*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB6080
117231436671hpùt-kneeJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
166081350,436669lah◦putkneeJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
350202350,4361814lă³¹phut³¹kneenJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0101.190
41201350,436679lă¹ phut³¹kneeJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Liu 84JZ-Jingpo0
117294350,436,m671ləh◦pùt shəmyenknee capJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
117230350,436671lə◦hpùtkneeJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
59171350,436684lə◦phutkneeJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB700
69247350,436685lə◦phutkneeJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
76316350,436687lə◦phutkneeJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Coblin 86WSC-SH1010
69246436685phutkneelJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
5652350,436667¹lə¹phutkneeJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT6200
128262436378puskneeBunan202.1.1Western Himalayish0Sharma, S.R. 91 BuSBN-BunQ6.2.20
18089436,m731buš◦baṅkneeKanauri202.1.1Western Himalayish0Sharma, D.D. 88 KnDS-Kan390
18088436731bəšjointKanauri202.1.1Western Himalayish0Sharma, D.D. 88 KnDS-Kan600
18090436,m731bəš◦baṅkneeKanauri202.1.1Western Himalayish0Sharma, D.D. 88 KnDS-Kan600
338533436,m1788pös̱ẖ◦pöṅkneenKanauri202.1.1Western Himalayish0Bailey 11BAI19110
117243436,m732pös̱ẖ◦pöṅkneeKanauri202.1.1Western Himalayish0Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
1313344361005bəTNknee cap / patellaPattani [Manchati]202.1.1Western Himalayish0Sharma, S.R. 91 MaSTP-ManQ6.2.2.10
1313334361005puṣkneePattani [Manchati]202.1.1Western Himalayish0Sharma, S.R. 91 MaSTP-ManQ6.2.20
187244361262puʂkneePattani [Manchati]202.1.1Western Himalayish0Sharma, D.D. 82 THDS-Patt0
297035436,m,m1085pis¹³ta⁵⁵-pʻi⁵⁵kickTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
692514361310pug-macollar-bonePurik242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
117238436,s1405pu◦muqkneeSherpa242.1.2.1Tibetan1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
692454361560pis-mokneeTibetan (Western)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
117279436,s1568pig-mokneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
303103436,s1578pig-mokneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC17n620
117278436,s1568pis-mokneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
303100436,4361578pus / piskneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC17n620
350184436,s1804pus mokneenTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0101.010
5966436,s1562pus-mokneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT6970
164844436,s1565pus-mokneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Luce 85GHL-PPBX.750
117277436,s1568pus-mokneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
59169436,s1577pus-mokneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB700
692444361578pus-mokneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
76320436,s1580pus-mokneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Coblin 86WSC-SH1010
80478436,s1581pus-mokneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Zhang Liansheng 88ZLS-Tib430
166085436,s1564pus◦mokneeTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
119224436,s894pǔn-lishoulder blade / scapulaLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
119223436,s894pǔt-lishoulder blade / scapulaLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
76314306,436901tuk pǎtkneeLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Coblin 86WSC-SH1010
117248306,436894tŭk-pătkneeLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
59170306,436899tuk-patkneeLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB700
69243306,436900tuk-pătkneeLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
303817306,436900tŭk-pătkneeLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Benedict 72 STCSTC75n2310
1192603343,436894tŭk-pun̊shoulderLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
504918306,4361988tuk◦pátkneen.Lepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Plaisier 07 LepchaHP-GL0
59654361468'puikneeTamang (Bagmati)232.1.4Tamangish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT6970
143499439,436,418323tïŋ◦pï◦tsïk◦kneeBantawa762.3.2Southern Kiranti1Michailovsky 91 KrBM-PK71010
117283439,436,418325tum-pït◦sïkkneeBantawa762.3.2Southern Kiranti1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
79594439,436,418328tum◦pu◦chükkneeBantawa762.3.2Southern Kiranti1Rai 84 BnDcWW-Bant700
113781436,437301pok-tikneeBahing302.3.4Western Kiranti1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
117252436,4371437poːk◦cikneeSunwar302.3.4Western Kiranti1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
5027983366,436,m,5701982(raʔ phu³¹ thɑʔ) bɑʔcarry (on shoulder)Rawang384Nungic1LaPolla 03RJL-Rawang13530
501502m,4361982hi⁵³ phɯtkneeRawang384Nungic1LaPolla 03RJL-Rawang1140
113819m,4361199phang-phitkneeAnong384Nungic1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
76317m,4361206phang-phitkneeAnong384Nungic1Coblin 86WSC-SH1010
59172m,4361203phaŋ-phitkneeAnong384Nungic1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB700
69248m,4361205phaŋ-phitkneeAnong384Nungic1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
1138213366,4361199ra-phutshoulderAnong384Nungic1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
591743366,4361203ra-phutshoulderAnong384Nungic1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB700
692503366,4361205ra-phutshoulderAnong384Nungic1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
763193366,4361206ra-phutshoulderAnong384Nungic1Coblin 86WSC-SH1010
5014893366,4361982rɑʔ phu³¹shoulderRawang384Nungic1LaPolla 03RJL-Rawang1010
5014913366,4361982rɑʔ tɕhiparmpitRawang384Nungic1LaPolla 03RJL-Rawang1030
59173373,4361203ur-phutelbowAnong384Nungic1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB700
69249373,4361205ur-phutelbowAnong384Nungic1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
76318373,4361206ur-phutelbowAnong384Nungic1Coblin 86WSC-SH1010
117257i,4361603bak³² pət⁴⁴kneeTrung [Dulong]384Nungic1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
350203m,4361816pɑŋ³¹pɯt⁵⁵kneenDulong384Nungic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0101.200
59167i,436539bak⁵⁵ pɯt⁵⁵kneeTrung [Dulong] (Dulonghe)384Nungic1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB700
40061m,436538bɑ̆k⁵⁵ pɯ̆t⁵⁵kneeTrung [Dulong] (Dulonghe)384Nungic1Sun H 82 DulJZ-Dulong0
59168m,436541paaŋ³¹ pit⁵⁵kneeTrung [Dulong] (Nujiang)384Nungic1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB700
40253m,436540pɑŋ³¹ pit⁵⁵kneeTrung [Dulong] (Nujiang)384Nungic1Sun H 82 DulJZ-Dulong0
506210436148putknee*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB700
69252436149putknee*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
350212436,4181825phɔʔ³¹tʂhɯk⁵⁵kneenAchang (Xiandao)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0101.290
17389436,418209pʰɔʔ³¹ tʂʰɯk⁵⁵kneeAchang (Xiandao)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 XianDQ-Xiandao1240
13141436,m370pɔ̱t⁵⁵ lauʔ⁵⁵kneeBola446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 BolaDQ-Bola1240
350215436,m1829pɔ̱t⁵⁵lauʔ⁵⁵kneenBola (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0101.320
440565436,418406puʼ-chackneeBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
164843436,418393puʼ[-cʻac]kneeBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Luce 85GHL-PPBX.750
164945436,418393[pu]◦cʻackneeBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Luce 85GHL-PPBY.970
350214436,m1828pa̱t⁵⁵lauk³¹kneenLangsu (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0101.310
15573436,m886pɔ̱t⁵⁵ luʔ³¹kneeLashi446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 LashDQ-Lashi6.2.20
15574436,m,m,m886pɔ̱t⁵⁵ luʔ³¹ ʃǒ⁵⁵ jou³³knee cap / patellaLashi446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 LashDQ-Lashi6.2.2.10
350216436,m1830pɔ̱t⁵³luʔ³¹kneenLeqi (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0101.330
69253436,m1032pat-laukneeMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
15319436,m1024pa̱t⁵⁵ lauk³¹kneeMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 LangDQ-Langsu6.2.20
15320436,m,m1024pa̱t⁵⁵ lauk³¹ ɣuk⁵⁵knee cap / patellaMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 LangDQ-Langsu6.2.2.10
44067m,4361686khji⁵¹ phut⁵⁵kneeAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Xu 84 ZaiwaJZ-Zaiwa0
350213m,4361827khji⁵¹phut⁵⁵kneenAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0101.300
113823436,m,m1286phat tho khaukneelCôông [Phunoi]486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
692544361291phat tho khaukneelCôông [Phunoi]486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Benedict 72 STCSTC70
20349436480pi̯ĕtknee-coverChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Chou 72ACST501a-b0
169398436,436481pi̯ĕt/pi̯ĕtknee-coverChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Karlgren 57 GSRGSR407m0
169343436,436481pi̯wət/pi̯uətknee-coverChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Karlgren 57 GSRGSR276l0
169434436,436481pi̯wət/pi̯uətknee-coversChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Karlgren 57 GSRGSR501c0
20348436,436480pi̯wət/pjwətknee-coverChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Chou 72ACST501a-b0
295344436471pjutknee coversChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0Baxter 92WHB-OC10260
77123436478pjətknee / knee overChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0Coblin 86WSC-SH1010
77124436468pjwətknee coversChinese (Middle)549.0.2Middle Chinese0Coblin 86WSC-SH1010

Chinese comparandum

韠 OC *pi̯ĕt, GSR #407m ‘knee cover’; Coblin 86:101 *pjit; B & S 2011: *pit {pi[t]}; Mand. .
韍 OC *pi̯wət, GSR #276l ‘knee cover’; Coblin 86:101 ST *pjut > OC *piət > *pjwət; Mand. .
巿 OC *pi̯wət, GSR #501a-b ‘knee cover’; Mand. .
芾 OC *pi̯wət, GSR #501c ‘knee cover’; Mand. .

The primary comparanda here are 韠 and 韍 , which are allofamic in OC.

The ideograph 巿 meaning ‘knee cover’ apparently antedates 韍 , but the latter eventually became the predominant form. Likewise, the ideograph 芾 was optionally a loan character for 巿 (see note, GSR #501c).