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1.5.1 Hand, Arm, Wing

For the first attempt to deal with this area of semantic space, see Matisoff 1985 (’Out on a limb’).

The presentation of the roots follows a certain roughly logical order. First come the etyma that seem basically to have meant HAND. The most widespread of these, which we might call «the *lak-family», comes in some nine variant forms (allofams), with semantic spillover into the areas of CUBIT and FOOT (Etyma #’s 1a-1i). This HAND section also comprises 6 more etyma, of varying degrees of solidity (#’s 2-7).

Next come the roots whose basic meaning is deemed to have been ARM (#’s 8-15), followed by the more numerous etyma in the WING area (#’s 17-32), one of which (#17) has 5 variants. This study is rounded out by several roots meaning PALM or WRIST (#’s 33-37); then three roots referring to measurements made with the upper limb (CUBIT, HANDSPAN; #’s 38-40); finally an etymon with both nominal (ARMPIT) and verbal (TICKLE) dimensions (#41), and a group of 7 Proto-Kuki-Chin reconstructions referring to actions performed with the hands (#’s 42-48).

Most of the reconstructions offered are at the Proto-Tibeto-Burman level. When available, meso-reconstructions are also included (e.g. pKaren, pKiranti, pKuki-Chin, pLolo-Burmese, pTani). Usually these are subsumed under the PTB etymon they represent, and do not receive a separate number (#’s 1c, 2, 8, 19, 20b, 22), but occasionally they have so far only been reconstructed for a single subgroup, and so receive separate numbers (#’s 15, 26, 30, 42-48).

For 13 of these etyma, Chinese comparanda are suggested, so that they may plausibly be reconstructed back to the Proto-Sino-Tibetan level.

For the sake of completeness we include an Indo-Aryan root (#32) which has been borrowed into several Himalayan languages.

Detailed as these etymologies are, they by no means exhaust the semantic field of the UPPER LIMB, which includes such notions as FINGER, FIST, ELBOW, NAIL, etc.

Note the connection between HAND and LEAF, cf. Nocte dʌk ‘hand’ , ¹ʌ‑dʌk ‘leaf’ ; Konyak (Tamlu) yak ‘hand’ , bɯn‑yak ‘leaf’ ; Garo jak ‘hand’ ; bi‑jak ‘leaf’ ; etc. In other languages, the words for ‘hand’ and ‘foot’ both contain the same morpheme, which is allofamically related to a morpheme in ‘leaf’ . For example, Lisu lá⁶‑hpá² ‘hand’ , hchi³‑hpá² ‘foot’ , si²‑hpyá⁵ ‘leaf’.

Etyma in this chapter

tag num_recs chaptertitle chapter sequence protoform protogloss grpid plg grpno notes num_notes num_comparanda status public username
3777Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.11.0lak ⪤ C-yakARM / HAND / WING2PTB0.1PAF10KEEP1stedt
6951802Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.11.1lakHAND/LIMB2PTB0.1incl 3005; incl *rak, *ak11KEEP1stedt
696246Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.11.2yakARM / HAND / ARMPIT / TICKLE2PTB0.1STC p.3411KEEP1stedt
699202Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.11.3d-yakHAND / ARM / LEAF2PTB0.1cf. HPTB pp.51, 6521KEEP1stedt
70051Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.11.4dakARM / HAND2PTB0.1= d-[ ]ak. pfx preempt of 69910KEEP1stedt
70226Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.11.5g-yakARM / HAND / CUBIT2PTB0.1cf. HPTB21KEEP1stedt
70510Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.11.6p-yakARM2PTB0.121KEEP1stedt
350183Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.11.7laLEG / FOOT2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
37549Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.11.8yaLEG / FOOT2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
88864Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.11.9d-ya OR g-yaFOOT2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
712255Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.12.0k(r)u-tHAND / FIST / ARM2PTB0.1incl 378,714,716,715,71310KEEP1stedt
73920Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.13.0k(w)ayARM / HAND / WING2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
37348Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.14.0wulHAND2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
75112Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.15.0m-biARM / HAND2PTB0.1incl 75010KEEP1stedt
77048Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.16.0riHAND2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
72516Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.17.0g-wanHAND / WRIST / FIN2PTB0.1incl 72621KEEP1stedt
74599Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.18.0banARM / HAND / SHOULDER2PTB0.120KEEP1stedt
611811Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.19.0powARM / HAND2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
24037Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.110.0k(w)aŋARM (upper) / WING2PTB0.121KEEP1stedt
1327187Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.111.0pwaŋARM (upper) / SHOULDER2PTB0.121KEEP1stedt
75446Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.112.0pumARM / SHOULDER2PTB0.1↭ 567 ; cf. *sbom 'swell'20KEEP1stedt
23618Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.113.0m-brwaŋARM2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
7718Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.114.0dumARM2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
711186Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.116.0dwaŋWING / HAND2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
71031Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.116.1dwaŋCUBIT2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
7530Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.117.0m/p/s-(l/d)apARM / HAND / WING2PTB0.1PAF10KEEP1stedt
75751Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.117.1lapWING / FEATHER2PTB0.121KEEP1stedt
20776Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.117.2s-lapWING / FLUTTER / EYELASH / GILL2PTB0.1fluttery/flapping things10KEEP1stedt
76017Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.117.3p-(l/y)apWING / FEATHER2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
7569Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.117.4papWING / FEATHER2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
7584Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.117.5m-dapWING / FEATHER2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
72053Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.118.0g-raŋWING / HAND / ARM2PTB0.121KEEP1stedt
731147Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.119.0g-(t)syəw-k/ŋWING / HAND2PTB0.1incl 728,732,733; cf. HPTB p.19921KEEP1stedt
73546Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.120.1syaWING2PTB0.120KEEP1stedt
73722Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.120.2s/k-laARM / HAND / WING2PTB0.1incl 73810KEEP1stedt
74238Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.121.0ka-tWING / HAND2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
71336Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.122.0kwarHAND / WING2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
70914Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.123.0m-kiŋWING2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
71421Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.124.0m/s-paWING / FEATHER2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
1228170Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.125.0s-puFEATHER / WING / HAIR (body)2PTB0.121KEEP1stedt
143511Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.126.0m-kloŋFEATHER / WING5PTani1.1.110KEEP1stedt
76212Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.127.0tirFEATHER / WING2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
76817Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.128.0m/s-lamWING / ARM / HAND / FINGER2PTB0.110KEEP1stedt
74111Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.129.0kanWING / ARM2PTB0.121KEEP1stedt
71550Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.130.0r-kamWING35PrGy3.3Gyalrong only10KEEP1stedt
1603538Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.131.0w(a/u)BIRD / EGG / WING / FOWL2PTB0.1STC#099; 'Wing' only in compounds31KEEP1stedt
7065Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.132.0pakWING / ARM62IAX.1.110KEEP1stedt
70737Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.133.0(p/b)lyaŋPLANK / PALM / FLAT SURFACE / WING2PTB0.1cf. STC#138, HPTB pp.281, 292, 296; cf. Yamphu & Sunwar *praŋ phra:M31KEEP1stedt
76936Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.134.0muː(k/ŋ)ARM / CUBIT2PTB0.1STC#39410KEEP1stedt
402713Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.135.0ɓaarFEED (using palm of hand)8PKC1.2PKC #2711KEEP1stedt
42649Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.136.0keŋ-I, ken-IICARRY (in the hand) / BRING ALONG70PCC1.2.2PKC #264 ("PCC")00KEEP1stedt
43767Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.137.0thamCARESS / GROPE / TOUCH (with hand)8PKC1.2PKC #37611KEEP1stedt
44626Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.138.0khoyʔTOUCH (with hand)8PKC1.2PKC #46200KEEP1stedt
45245Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.139.0tsooyBORROW / CARRY (in the hand)8PKC1.2PKC #52400KEEP1stedt
47323Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.140.0huy-I, huyʔ-IIRAKE UP / SCRAPE (with hand)70PCC1.2.2PKC #732 ("PCC")00KEEP1stedt
53503Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.141.0thruamSCOOP (with hand)70PCC1.2.2PKC #1350 ("PCC")00KEEP1stedt
77331Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.142.0ɁdeɁᴰWING50PKar7TL10KEEP1stedt
34159Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.143.0hukHAND29PKir2.3JAM-LITB 5.210KEEP1stedt
63458Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.144.0hupGROPE5PTani1.1.1JS-HCST: 19900KEEP0stedt
66928Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.145.0lak-ŋərWRIST5PTani1.1.1JS-HCST: 22810KEEP0stedt
40856Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.146.0ɗapGROPE8PKC1.2PKC #8500KEEP0stedt
52804Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.147.0thlaarBUNCH / HAND (of bananas)70PCC1.2.2PKC #1280 ("PCC")00KEEP0stedt
128227Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.148.0tu(p/m)CLENCH / FIST2PTB0.100KEEP1stedt
744010Hand, Arm, Wing1.5.149.0ɁboɁᴰREACH INTO50PKar7TL#23600KEEP1stedt