10.0 Grammatical Words > 10.6 Not, yes ? > 10.6.2 Negative

#2436 PTB *ma (NEGATIVE)

Reconstructed mesoroots below:

This functor is widely attested in many branches of Tibeto-Burman. Several Qiangic languages show the expected “brightening” of *‑a to *‑i.

In many languages there is an allegro variant with zero-initial, e.g. Lahu mâ ~ .

rnanalysislgidreflexglossgfnlanguagegrpidgrpnogrpgeneticcitationsrcabbrsrcidrn
607442436181manegative*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB810
51540424362012ma-|ynegative*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB6010
2311362436509m̩⁵⁵NEGDarang [Taraon]61.1.2Deng1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.490
2312132436662m̩⁵⁵don'tIdu61.1.2Deng1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.500
24601224361019manotMaring111.3“Naga” Areal Group0Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
61916224362229maʔNO (REFUSAL)*Central Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNIII.0030
61898224362228maʔNO (REFUSAL)*Ao631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.2090
61899424362228mə-NEGATIVE (VERBAL)pfx.*Ao631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.2210
2459962436270manotAo (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
6197992436,m2245ma³sə¹no (yes/no)Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 SuppCNDWB-CNSD0
61980224362226maʔ¹no (refusal)Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.2090
6198762436,1192226mu²kuŋ²coldbe v.Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.0640
61980324362226mə²-NEGATIVE (verbal)pfx.Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.2210
236756p,2436,m270ta◦ma◦jungbadAo (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
239102p,2436,119270te◦mo◦kongcoldAo (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2459982436273monotAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
3113382355,2436,m,p,2505273mükyi-mü◦pen-te◦niseventeenAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL 1
2580462355,2436,m,2259273mükyi◦mü◦pen◦tsiteighteenAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
236757p,2436,m273ta◦ma◦robadAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
236758p,2436,m273te◦me◦pungbadAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
239103p,2436,119273tü◦mu◦kungcoldAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
450410p,2436,1191963(NZP-) mə◦kuŋcoldbe v.Ao (Mongsen: Mangmetong)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Coupe 07 AoARC-GMA0
45102324361963màʔnoAo (Mongsen: Mangmetong)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Coupe 07 AoARC-GMA0
450396p,2436,m1963ta◦má◦ɹubad (<NZP- + NEG + 'be good')be v.Ao (Mongsen: Mangmetong)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Coupe 07 AoARC-GMA0
62036824362231moʔ²no (refusal)Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNIII.0030
62155324362247m̩³-not, NEGATIVE (verbal)pfx.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 SuppCNDWB-CNSD 2
6215042436,m2247m̩³-hon¹-badbe v.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 SuppCNDWB-CNSD 3
2460092436963mnotLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2459612436963menoLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2475112436,2449963m◦mheraw (unripe)Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2367662436,m963m◦mhobadLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2534982436,m963m◦mhowrongLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2460082436963nnotLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
251850m,2436,m1364atsü◦mü◦tsauglySangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
618095p,2436,7726,m2205a◦mü◦pi◦saincompleteSangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Kumar 73 SangBBK-Sangtam0
236780p,2436,m1364a◦mü◦tsabadSangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
252962p,2436,m1364a◦mü◦tsawickedSangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24597424361364manoSangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24602624361364manotSangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24602724361364notSangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2367862436,m1640ma◦chongbadYacham-Tengsa631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2518522436,m1640ma◦chonguglyYacham-Tengsa631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
618338p,2436,2449,m2206a◦mü◦mün◦khiunripeYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Kumar 73 YimBBK-Yim310
618346p,2436,m2206a◦mü◦tsübadYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Kumar 73 YimBBK-Yim380
618345p,2436,m2206a◦mu◦tsübadYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Kumar 73 YimBBK-Yim760
252965p,2436,m1672a◦mü◦tsüwickedYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
236787p,2436,m1672a◦mü◦tsübadYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24603724361672notYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24598024361672munoYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
6184972436,m2206mü◦lanoYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Kumar 73 YimBBK-Yim630
24601324361050manotMeluri651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24601424361050menotMeluri651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24601524361050monotMeluri651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24602024361196monotNtenyi651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24597524361382monoSema [Sumi]651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24602824361382moinotSema [Sumi]651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24601624361137manotMzieme641.3.3Zeme Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24596624361137manoMzieme641.3.3Zeme Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
24596724361188manoNocte841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
1691342436,663,s1095ma◦lek◦pabadTsangla (Central)222.1.2Bodic1Andvik 93EA-Tsh130b0
23111624361088maNEGTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.70
23116724361088madon'tTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.70
21749924361088maNEG+haveTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.70
29740424361085ma¹³-NEG imperativeTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
29740324361085ma¹³-NEGTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
2971972436,m1085ma¹³la¹³NEG+have (recent past)auxTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
2971962436,m1085ma¹³wa¹³NEG+have (stative)auxTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
29793324361089ma-NEG imperativeTsangla (Tilang)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
29793224361089ma-NEGTsangla (Tilang)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
2978032436,m1089ma◦naNEG+have (stative)Tsangla (Tilang)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
29885224361093mɑ³⁵NEGTshona (Wenlang)222.1.2Bodic1Lu 86 CuoMJZ-CNMenba0
23119124361092mᴀ¹³don'tTshona (Mama)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.60
23119024361550madon'tTibetan (Amdo:Bla-brang)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.40
23113924361550NEGTibetan (Amdo:Bla-brang)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.40
23116624361585madon'tTibetan (Amdo:Zeku)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.50
23111424361380ma¹³NEGTibetan (Khams:Dege)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.30
23116524361380ma¹³don'tTibetan (Khams:Dege)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.30
2173952436,m1380ma¹³reʔ⁵³NEG+copulaTibetan (Khams:Dege)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.30
21749724361380meʔ³¹NEG+haveTibetan (Khams:Dege)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.30
23113824361557ma¹³NEGTibetan (Lhasa)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.20
23118924361557ma¹³don'tTibetan (Lhasa)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.20
21752124361557mɛʔ¹³NEG+haveTibetan (Lhasa)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.20
21741924361557mɛ̃¹⁵NEG+copulaTibetan (Lhasa)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.20
24604824361564manotTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
23116424361582madon'tTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.10
26864824361166ma-notNewar272.2Newar1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0080
53343024362068ma-(negative marker)*Kiranti292.3Kiranti1Opgenort 11 TilungJRO-Tilung0
4778392436,m1975ma◦sun!don't lose it!Athpare (Rai)312.3.1Eastern Kiranti1Ebert 97 AthpareKE-GA0
26864624361433notSunwar302.3.4Western Kiranti1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0080
636292436449-manotChepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 72 CVocSIL-Chep1.80
48487724361977-maʔNegative (non-final verb form only)fn.Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 00 ChepangRC-DOC0
4848682436,m1977ma.ləno! (WD)excl.Chepang282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Caughley 00 ChepangRC-DOC0
2686412436990mā-notMagar282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN01.0080
2311462436561ma³³NEGErsu343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.180
2239042436,m561ma³³li⁵⁵badErsu343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC861.180
2247202436,2583,m561ma³³phɛ⁵⁵khuɑ⁵⁵cheapErsu343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC877.180
2174272436,m561ma³³zɿ⁵⁵NEG+copulaErsu343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.180
2175292436,m561mɑ³³bo⁵⁵NEG+haveErsu343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.180
2244142436,m561mɑ³³nthuɑ⁵⁵bluntErsu343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC871.180
42034824361811mã³⁵have, do notv.Guiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.160
4006122436,m1811ma³⁵bã⁵⁵idle / not busyGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1081.160
3976062436,m1811ma³⁵tɕhɑ̃⁵⁵blunt / dullGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1021.160
2311202436595me³⁵NEGGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.170
3991882436,m,m1811me³⁵ge³⁵wu⁵⁵badGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1053.160
2174012436,m595me⁵⁵ʐɿ⁵⁵NEG+copulaGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.170
2238782436,m,m595mɛ³³gie³⁵u⁵⁵badGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC861.170
2175032436595mɛ³⁵NEG+haveGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.170
2232152436,m595mɛ³⁵ndzɪ̃⁵⁵uglyGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC848.170
2243882436,m595mɑ³³tɕhɔ̃⁵⁵bluntGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC871.170
400614m,2436,m,m1813de³³mæ³³bi³³bi³¹idle / not busyLyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1081.180
4203502436,m1813ma³³bo³⁵have, do notv.Lyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.180
4303212436,m1813ma³³nduo⁵³disappear / vanish (lit. 'not seen anymore')v.Lyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1731.180
3976082436,m1813ma³³nthua⁵³blunt / dullLyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1021.180
3991902436,m1813mæ³³li⁵³badLyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1053.180
3995992436,m1813mæ³³nphiu⁵³uglyLyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1061.180
3993052436,2583,m1813mæ³³phe⁵³khuæ³¹cheapLyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1055.180
4008672436,2745,27451813mæ³³ʂu⁵³ʂu⁵³dirtyLyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1086.180
4203472436,m1810ȵi³³mə⁵³have, do notv.Muya343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.150
4203882436,2821810ȵi³³ndʑø⁵³have, do notv.Muya343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.150
2175022436,2821136ȵi³⁵ndʑo⁵³NEG+haveMuya [Minyak]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.150
2232142436,m,m1136ȵi³⁵si³³vɯ⁵⁵uglyMuya [Minyak]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC848.150
2238772436,m,m1136ȵi³⁵si³³vɯ⁵⁵badMuya [Minyak]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC861.150
2262232436,m1136ȵi³⁵tɕu⁵³lazyMuya [Minyak]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC907.150
2147502436,56771147mi³³ʁa³⁵lose (a game)Namuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC682.190
23112124361147mɛ³³NEGNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.190
2206662436,56771147mɛ³³ʁa³⁵loseNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC798.190
2175042436,m,m1147mɛ⁵⁵dʐɿ⁵⁵gie⁵⁵NEG+haveNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.190
2174022436,m1147mɛ⁵⁵dʑi⁵⁵NEG+copulaNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.190
2243892436,55151147mɛ⁵⁵nthɛ³⁵bluntNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC871.190
2238792436,m1147mɛ⁵⁵nɛ³³badNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC861.190
2246952436,2583,m1147mɛ⁵⁵phu⁵⁵dʐɛ³⁵cheapNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC877.190
2262252436,m1147mɛ⁵⁵thu⁵⁵lazyNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC907.190
2232162436,m1147mɛ⁵⁵tse³³uglyNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC848.190
2235222436,2745,27451147mɛ⁵⁵ʂɛ³³ʂɛ⁵⁵dirtyNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC854.190
399627m,m,2436,m1844jæ⁵⁵ndzɿ⁵⁵mæ⁵⁵dʐuo⁵⁵uglyNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1061.460
4203782436,m1844mæ³³dʐuo⁵there isn't / aren'tv.Namuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.460
3990072436,24491844mæ⁵³mi³¹uncooked / rawNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1049.460
3976332436,55151844mæ⁵³nthæ³¹blunt / dullNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1021.460
3992182436,6601844mæ⁵³næ̱³¹badNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1053.460
3989092436,m,m1844mæ⁵³tshɿ³³qa³¹trueNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1047.460
4258112436,m1844mæ⁵³ʁa³¹lose (a game)v.Namuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1635.460
4008952436,2745,27451844mæ⁵³ʂa³³ʂa⁵³dirtyNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1086.460
4006362436,m,m1844mæ⁵⁵khu³³khu⁵³idle / not busyNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1081.460
4020492436,m1844mæ⁵⁵thu⁵⁵lazyNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1112.460
4203422436,m1805mɑ¹³bõ³⁵have, do notv.Pumi (Jiulong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.100
4020132436,m1805mɑ⁵⁵tʂuɑ⁵⁵lazyPumi (Jiulong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1112.100
4203412436,m1853mɑ¹³bõ⁵⁵have, do notv.Pumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.090
3975992436,m1853mɑ¹³tɕha⁵⁵blunt / dullPumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1021.090
3995912436,m1853mɑ¹³ʃu⁵⁵uglyPumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1061.090
23111824361306mɑ¹³NEGPumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.110
2175012436,m1306mɑ¹³bõ⁵⁵NEG+havePumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.110
2173992436,m1306mɑ¹³də¹³NEG+copulaPumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.110
2243862436,m1306mɑ¹³tɕha⁵⁵bluntPumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC871.110
2232132436,m1306mɑ¹³ʃu⁵⁵uglyPumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC848.110
23114224361309ma³⁵NEGPumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.100
2175252436,m1309ma³⁵bõ⁵⁵NEG+havePumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.100
2262462436,m,m1309ma³⁵dzio⁵⁵mə⁵³lazyPumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC907.100
2174232436,m1309ma³⁵də³⁵NEG+copulaPumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.100
2244102436,m,m1309ma³⁵tɕhɛ⁵⁵mə⁵³bluntPumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC871.100
5095682436,27451996mà sódirtyQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang1542 4
5122312436,m1996mè uénot have (use)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25450
51248324361996mìhave not (+V-ed)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang26390
5094852436,m1996mì iábad (of character)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15050
51220024361996mì íthere is not (person)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25380
5122142436,m1996mì liánot have (something in bowl)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25410
5122192436,m1996mì liánot have (something in milk)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25420
5122232436,m1996mì síthere is not (something on table)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25430
5122032436,m1996mì ʁuáthere is not (tree)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25390
5094722436,m1996mì-iáfake, counterfeit [NEG-good]Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15000
51247724361996míNEGQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang26370
51247924361996míNEG (+ V)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang26380
5095992436,m1996mí iàfoul-tasting ('not good')Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15540
5096072436,m1996mí sèuglyQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15600
5121962436,m1996mí tsènot have (wealth)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25370
5122102436,m1996mò ɦóthere is not (a matter)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25400
5122332436,m1996mò ɦónot have (use)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25450
5124812436,m1996mò ɦóhave not (+V-ed)Qiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang26390
23114124361320maNEGQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.80
2232362436,m1320ma mdzauglyQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC848.80
2244092436,m1320ma tsabluntQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC871.80
2175242436,m1320mu huNEG+haveQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.80
2235422436,2745,m1320mə ɕu tiudirtyQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC854.80
3975982436,m1852mɛ tsɛblunt / dullQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1021.080
4006042436,m,m1852mɛ tɕin thɑidle / not busyQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1081.080
42034024361852mɛwhave, do notv.Qiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.080
2174222436,m1320mɑ ŋuəNEG+copulaQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.80
2247152583,2436,m1320phə ma lacheapQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC877.80
509739m,m,2436,m1997duɛ̀-diò-mì-lɛ́overly talkative [mouth-door-not-have]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang16140
509662m,m,2436,m,m1997duɛ̀-diò-mì-uɛ́-mùlongwinded [mouth-door-NEG-have-m]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15860
509574m,2436,m,m,m,2436,m1997ì-mí-sì-ȵà-qhuɛ̀-mì-téquiet [chicken-not-cluck-and-dog-not-bark]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15440
5124782436,361997mì (dzɛ́)NEG (+ eat)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang26380
5124752436,m1997mì (ŋuɛ́)NEG (+ be)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang26370
5124802436,m1997mì dzɨ̀have not (+V-ed)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang26390
5068542436,m,m,m1997mì láN bà mùmute personQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang2670
5122132436,m1997mì lɛ́not have (something in bowl)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25410
5122222436,m1997mì lɛ́not have (something in milk)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25420
5096062436,m,m1997mì pá ʂèuglyQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15600
5095032436,m1997mì táuglyQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15130
5096082436,m1997mì táuglyQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15600
5093942436,m1997mì tsɛ́dullQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang14690
5122242436,m1997mì tɨ́there is not (something on table)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25430
5122052436,m1997mì uɛ́there is not (tree)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25390
5121972436,m1997mì ŋànot have (wealth)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25370
5122072436,m1997mì ŋàthere is not (tree)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25390
5122112436,m1997mì ŋàthere is not (a matter)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25400
5122182436,m1997mì ŋànot have (something in milk)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25420
5122302436,m1997mì ŋànot have benefitQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25440
5122352436,m1997mì ŋànot have (use)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25450
5124822436,m1997mì ŋàhave not (+V-ed)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang26390
5122022436,m1997mì ʑíthere is not (person)Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25380
5121142436,m,m1997mì-láN-pàmute [NEG-speak-s]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang25080
5109572436,m,m1997mì-pú-zɨ̀forbid [NEG-do-CAUS]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang20770
5087962436,m1997mì-ŋàzero [NEG-have]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang12100
5095022436,bChinese1997mí-pà ʂɨ̀ugly [m-b]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15130
506835681,m,2436,m,m1997mù tié-mí-tiù-mùblind person [eyes-not-see-AGT]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang2590
506856681,m,m,m,2436,m,m1997mù tí-à-ʑà-mì-ué-mùone-eyed person [eye-one-CL-NEG-have-person]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang2680
506834m,m,2436,m,m1997mɛ̀ tié-mí-tiù-mùblind person [eyes-not-see-AGT]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang2590
509733m,m,2436,m1997qɛ́ zɨ̀-mì-ŋàflustered, confused [reason-not-have]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang16120
5097371387,m,2436,m1997tiɛ́-qɛ̀-mì-tə̀careless, slipshod [heart-m-not-put]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang16130
5095412729,2436,m1997tshɨ̀-mí-dzùbland [salt-NEG-enough?]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15310
510353m,2436,m,m1997tɕhì-mì-ȵú-uàdie [b(breath)-NEG-m-m]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang18460
510825m,2436,m,m1997ù |sù-mí-qè ʐàenvy, despise [look-NEG-a.little]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang20220
509881m,m,2436,m1997ȵà kí-mì-ŋuɛ̀must, have to [what-not-be]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang16660
2243852436,m1323mi³³tsie³³bluntQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC871.90
2238752436,m1323mi³³ʂe³³badQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC861.90
23111724361323mi⁵⁵NEGQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.90
2235182436,b,b1323mi⁵⁵kan⁵⁵tsin¹³dirtyQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC854.90
2246912436,2583,m1323mi⁵⁵phə⁵⁵ly⁵⁵cheapQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC877.90
2173982436,m1323mi⁵⁵ŋuə³³NEG+copulaQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.90
2175002436,m1323mi⁵⁵ŋɑ³³NEG+haveQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.90
2232122436,m,m1323mi⁵⁵χpɑ³³ʂe³³uglyQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC848.90
23114524361699ma³⁵NEGQueyu (Yajiang) [Zhaba]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.160
2174262436,m1699ma³⁵dzi³⁵NEG+copulaQueyu (Yajiang) [Zhaba]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.160
2175282436,m1699ma³⁵ɕi³⁵NEG+haveQueyu (Yajiang) [Zhaba]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.160
4203872436,m1808ma¹³tɕo⁵⁵have, do notv.Queyu (Xinlong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.130
3976032436,m1808ma⁵⁵kɕe⁵⁵blunt / dullQueyu (Xinlong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1021.130
3995942436,m,m1808ma⁵⁵mtɕhe⁵⁵tɕe³³uglyQueyu (Xinlong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1061.130
4203452436,m1808ma⁵⁵ra⁵⁵have, do notv.Queyu (Xinlong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.130
2232422436,m,m1409me⁵⁵jɛ⁵⁵ji⁵⁵uglyXumi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC848.200
2239052436,m1409me⁵⁵rɑ³³badXumi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC861.200
2244152436,m1409me⁵⁵tɕhe³³bluntXumi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC871.200
2235482436,27451409me⁵⁵ʂɑ̃⁵⁵dirtyXumi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC854.200
4203492436,m1812mu³³ʐõ⁵⁵have, do notv.Xumi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.170
23114724361409mu⁵⁵NEGXumi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.200
3995982436,m1812mu⁵⁵tɕhu³³uglyXumi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1061.170
2174282436,m,m1409mu⁵⁵uɛ̃³³ji⁵⁵NEG+copulaXumi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.200
4008662436,27451812mu⁵⁵ʂõ⁵⁵dirtyXumi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1086.170
4020202436,m1812mu⁵⁵ʔɛ̃⁵⁵lazyXumi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1112.170
2175302436,m,m1409mɛi⁵⁵ʑɔ̃³³ji⁵⁵NEG+haveXumi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.200
3995952436,m,m1809ma³³dʌ⁵⁵zɿ³³uglyZhaba (Daofu County)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1061.140
4203462436,m1809ma³³pᴜ⁵⁵have, do notv.Zhaba (Daofu County)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.140
4008632436,2745,m1809ma³³ʂtsᴜ̃⁵⁵ma³³dirtyZhaba (Daofu County)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1086.140
2311442436557miNEGErgong (Danba)353.3rGyalrongic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.140
2175272436,282557mi ntɕhoNEG+haveErgong (Danba)353.3rGyalrongic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.140
23114324361340maNEGrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.120
23119424361340don'trGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.120
33139924361797mɐʔno (negation)Caodeng783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 CaoJS-Caodeng0
5028202436,m1982mɑ³¹ dɑŋ⁵³not haveRawang384Nungic1LaPolla 03RJL-Rawang13750
5025162436,2583,m1982mɑ³¹ phɯ⁵³ wɛ³³cheapRawang384Nungic1LaPolla 03RJL-Rawang10820
5028192436,m1982mɑ³¹ ɑl³³not haveRawang384Nungic1LaPolla 03RJL-Rawang13740
4203532436,m1817m̩³¹ɑn⁵⁵have, do notv.Nung384Nungic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.210
2174412436,450537mɯ³¹e⁵³NEG+copulaTrung [Dulong]384Nungic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.460
4203522436,m1816m◦ɑ·n⁵³have, do notv.Dulong384Nungic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.200
2312112436,m537m◦ɑ̆n⁵⁵don'tTrung [Dulong]384Nungic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.460
592702436539mɯ³¹negativeTrung [Dulong] (Dulonghe)384Nungic1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB810
592712436541mɯ³¹negativeTrung [Dulong] (Nujiang)384Nungic1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB810
2995592436,450540mɯ³¹e⁵³NEG+copulaTrung [Dulong] (Nujiang)384Nungic1Sun H 82 DulJZ-Dulong0
29030124361617ma⁵⁵NEGTujia (Southern)415Tujia1Tian 86JZ-Tujia0
51540724362011ma²not*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB6010
2884442436201n³¹NEGAchang (Lianghe)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
2884452436,m201n³¹pa⁵⁵not yetAchang (Lianghe)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
2882372436,m201n³¹pɑ⁵⁵NEG+haveAchang (Lianghe)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
2882352436,5741201n³¹ȵ̥ɛʔ⁵⁵NEG+copulaAchang (Lianghe)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
2311322436200ma³¹NEGAchang (Longchuan)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.410
2175152436,m200mă³¹pɔ⁵⁵NEG+haveAchang (Longchuan)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.410
2174132436,m200mă³¹ȵ̥eʔ⁵⁵NEG+copulaAchang (Longchuan)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.410
4203602436,m1824mă⁵¹pɔ⁵⁵have, do notv.Achang (Longchuan)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.280
2876202436207m³¹NEGAchang (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
2874132436,m207m³¹pa³¹NEG+haveAchang (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
2876212436,m207m³¹paʔ³¹not yetAchang (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
2874112436,m207m³¹ŋut⁵⁵NEG+copulaAchang (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
4203612436,m1825m³¹pɔ³⁵have, do notv.Achang (Xiandao)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.290
4203592436,m1823mɑ⁵³ɕi⁵³have, do notv.Burmese (Rangoon)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.270
2311572436,m1428mɑ⁵³...bu⁵⁵NEGBurmese (Spoken Rangoon)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.400
2312082436,m1428mɑ⁵³...n̥ĩ⁵³don'tBurmese (Spoken Rangoon)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.400
2174382436,m1428mɑ⁵³hoʔ⁴⁴NEG+copulaBurmese (Spoken Rangoon)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.400
2175402436,m1428mɑ⁵³ɕi⁵³NEG+haveBurmese (Spoken Rangoon)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.400
2460392436392manotBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
313402436401ma'notBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Matisoff 74 TJLBJAM-TJLB3980
4398712436406maʼnotBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
2311312436411mɑ¹...bhu³NEGBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.390
2311822436,m411mɑ¹...hnɑŋ¹don'tBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.390
4203582436,m1822mɑ¹hri¹have, do notv.Burmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.260
2175142436,m411mɑ¹hri¹NEG+haveBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.390
2174122436,m411mɑ¹hutNEG+copulaBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.390
2340932436,2436653máʼ, mă-notHpun (Northern)446.1.1Burmish1Henderson 86 HpunEJAH-Hpun0
2335772436,m653mă◦kɔ̀ŋbad (= 'not good')Hpun (Northern)446.1.1Burmish1Henderson 86 HpunEJAH-Hpun0
2340942436,m653mă◦páis notHpun (Northern)446.1.1Burmish1Henderson 86 HpunEJAH-Hpun0
2336002436,m653mă◦páʔnot bev.i.Hpun (Northern)446.1.1Burmish1Henderson 86 HpunEJAH-Hpun0
2335552436,m653mă◦ʃíʼalive (lit. = 'not die')Hpun (Northern)446.1.1Burmish1Henderson 86 HpunEJAH-Hpun0
2339882436,m653mă◦ʃíʼnot knowHpun (Northern)446.1.1Burmish1Henderson 86 HpunEJAH-Hpun0
3996122436,6631828mə̆³¹jauŋ⁵⁵uglyLangsu (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1061.310
4203632436,m1828mə̆³¹ɣɔ⁵⁵have, do notv.Langsu (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.310
4534492436,53591965mə ... θǐnot yetMarma446.1.1Burmish1Huziwara 08 SakHK-Sak4330
4532962436,22641965mə◦hlǎuglyviMarma446.1.1Burmish1Huziwara 08 SakHK-Sak349-10
23113324361034mə̆³¹NEGMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.430
2232282436,6631034mə̆³¹jauŋ⁵⁵uglyMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC848.430
2174142436,m1034mə̆³¹ŋat³¹NEG+copulaMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.430
2175162436,m1034mə̆³¹ɣɔ⁵⁵NEG+haveMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.430
121812436152ma²not*Loloish456.1.2Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo8010
1330672436153ma²not*Loloish456.1.2Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
3992192436,6601845ma³¹na³⁵badGazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1053.470
3993332436,2583,m1845ma³¹phv³¹kha⁵⁵cheapGazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1055.470
4203792436,m1845ma³¹tso³²³have, do notv.Gazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.470
4006372436,m,m1845ma³¹xoa²⁴tsa²⁴idle / not busyGazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1081.470
33575424361219ma³¹NEGNusu (Northern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
4203662436,m1831ma⁵⁵khui³¹have, do notv.Nusu (Central)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.340
23113424361215mɑ³³NEGNusu (Bijiang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.450
33665224361220mɑ⁵³NEGNusu (Southern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
3355072436,m1219mɑ⁵⁵khui³¹NEG+haveNusu (Northern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
3364082436,m1220mɑ⁵⁵khui³¹NEG+haveNusu (Southern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
2175172436,m1215mɑ⁵⁵khui³¹NEG+haveNusu (Bijiang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.450
3355052436,m1219mɑ⁵⁵uɔ̱³¹NEG+copulaNusu (Northern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
2174152436,m1215mɑ⁵⁵uə̃ʴ⁵³NEG+copulaNusu (Bijiang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.450
3364062436,m1220mɑ⁵⁵ŋuə³¹NEG+copulaNusu (Southern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
23114824361658ma²¹NEGYi (Dafang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.220
2175312436,m1658ma²¹dzɔ²¹NEG+haveYi (Dafang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.220
2174292436,m1658ma²¹ŋɯ²¹NEG+copulaYi (Dafang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.220
45931324361962a²¹no; notYi (Liangshan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Ma 08 YiSIL-Nuosuindex0
4593922436,71851962a³⁴bi³³defective; old (not new); poor (quality)Yi (Liangshan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Ma 08 YiSIL-Nuosuindex0
4594172436,71831962a³⁴li³³old (not new)Yi (Liangshan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Ma 08 YiSIL-Nuosuindex0
46218724361962ma²¹no (literary)Yi (Liangshan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Ma 08 YiSIL-Nuosuindex0
23112424361662ᴀ²¹NEGYi (Mile)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.250
2175072436,m,2436,m1662ᴀ²¹bu³³; ᴀ²¹tʂu³³NEG+haveYi (Mile)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.250
2174052436,m1662ᴀ²¹ŋɯ³³NEG+copulaYi (Mile)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.250
23115024361663mᴀ²¹NEGYi (Mojiang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.260
2175332436,m1663mᴀ²¹dzᴀ²¹NEG+haveYi (Mojiang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.260
2174312436,m1663mᴀ²¹ŋɯ²¹NEG+copulaYi (Mojiang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.260
23112324361666mɑ²¹NEGYi (Nanjian)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.230
2175062436,m1666mɑ²¹dʐu⁵⁵NEG+haveYi (Nanjian)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.230
2174042436,m1666mɑ²¹ŋɑ⁵⁵NEG+copulaYi (Nanjian)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.230
4203682436,m1833mɑ²¹dʐu⁵⁵have, do notv.Yi (Weishan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.360
4203702436,m1835mɑ¹¹dʐɒ¹¹have, do notv.Yi (Wuding)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.380
23112224361670a²¹NEGYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.210
2175052436,2821670a²¹dʑo³³NEG+haveYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.210
2174032436,m1670a²¹ŋɯ³³NEG+copulaYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.210
4203672436,2821832ɑ²¹dʑo³³have, do notv.Yi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.350
2311542436696mɔ³³NEGJinuo476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.340
2175372436,282696mɔ³³tʃa³¹NEG+haveJinuo476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.340
3013832436,m700mɔ³³ŋə⁴⁴NEG+copulaJinuo (Youle)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Gai 86JZ-Jinuo0
2174352436,m696mɔ³³ŋɯ³³NEG+copulaJinuo476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.340
3018552436699mɔ⁴⁴NEGJinuo (Buyuan)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Gai 86JZ-Jinuo0
3016462436700mɔ⁴⁴NEGJinuo (Youle)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Gai 86JZ-Jinuo0
3013852436,282700mɔ⁴⁴tʃɑ⁴²NEG+haveJinuo (Youle)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Gai 86JZ-Jinuo0
4203762436,2821842mə⁴⁴tʃa⁴²have, do notv.Jinuo476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.440
4771702436,m1969mʌ31 tsɔ31don't haveKucong476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Dai 09 KucongDC-Kucong0
4203752436,m1841mɑ⁵³tɕɔ³¹have, do notv.Lahu (Lancang)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.430
6213932436831NEGLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 88 DLJAM-DL950
2311282436851mᴀ⁵³NEGLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.330
2175112436,m851mᴀ⁵³tsɔ³¹NEG+haveLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.330
2174092436,m851mᴀ⁵³xe⁵⁴NEG+copulaLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.330
3029122436856NEGLahu (Yellow)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
3029132436,m856a³ (tsɔ²)not yetLahu (Yellow)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
3026412436,282856a³tsɔ²NEG+haveLahu (Yellow)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
3026392436,m856a¹xe⁶NEG+copulaLahu (Yellow)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
2777182436946ma²¹no; notALisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2778072436,m946ma²¹ dzæ⁴⁴not suitableLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777582436,m,m,m946ma²¹ dʑi⁴⁴æ³³ ma³³ugly; not clean; despicable and filthy; baseLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2826182436,m,m944ma²¹ ni³⁵tɕhø³⁵not worry; not rash; steady; prudentLisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777722436,m,m946ma²¹ ni³⁵tɕhɤ³⁵not worry; not rash; steady; prudentLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777812436,m946ma²¹ sa²¹not handle in transport (unfortunate)Lisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777212436,m,2436,m946ma²¹ba²¹ ma²¹thu³³not too thin nor too thick; not too thin nor too dense; evenLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777282436,m946ma²¹da³³will not do; not able; cannotLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777352436,m946ma²¹deʔ²¹not fine (not well husked)Lisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777372436,m946ma²¹du³³not disturbLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2778092436,m946ma²¹dzi²¹not deliberate; not aware ofLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2778082436,m946ma²¹dziʔ²¹not closeLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2778122436,5790946ma²¹dzɔ²¹not right; incorrect; not suitableLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2778112436,m946ma²¹dzɔ³³will not stick; not stickyLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777552436,m946ma²¹dʑi³³bad; not good; unfortunate; disappointingLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777592436,m,m946ma²¹dʑɔ³³dʑɔ³³not afraid; fearlessLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777452436,m946ma²¹fu³³not dryLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777442436,m946ma²¹fu³³not let goLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777492436,m,2436,m946ma²¹gu²¹ ma²¹jɔ³³equally match; not inferior toLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777482436,m,2436,m946ma²¹gu³³ ma²¹sa²¹endlessly; ceaselessly; will not stop until finishLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777522436,m,2436,m946ma²¹hwa⁵⁵ ma²¹sa²¹go all out to do better; not stop until victoryLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2778032436,m946ma²¹jæ³³not vacillateLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777512436,m,2436,m946ma²¹ku⁵⁵ ma²¹sa²¹not stop until learn to doLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777612436,m946ma²¹lɔʔ²¹not enough; lack; scarce;Lisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777662436,2440,2436,m946ma²¹mɔ²¹ ma²¹læ⁵⁵middle-aged; not old nor youngLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777882436,m946ma²¹si²¹not sober; coma; lose sensesLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777892436,m,2436,m946ma²¹si²¹ ma²¹ɕæ³³filthy; not hygienicLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777912436,m946ma²¹tha²¹not the same; differentLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777382436,m,m946ma²¹ti³³si²¹not soberLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777252436,m946ma²¹tshi³³not only; not less than; not merely; without end; not simplyLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777262436,m946ma²¹tshi³³not enoughLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777242436,m946ma²¹tʃhɿ³³no matter; there is no need; not necessary; not importantLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777532436,m946ma²¹tɕa³³ignore; not respect; not trustLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777992436,m,2436,m946ma²¹vu²¹ ma²¹jɔ³³not too big nor too small; medium; medium sizeLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777412436,m,2436,m946ma²¹ɣɔʔ²¹ ma²¹phɤ³³match; match well; not very different from each otherLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777832436,m,2436,m946ma²¹ʃɿ³³ ma²¹ɲɔ⁵⁵not too long nor too short; just rightLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2778012436,m946ma²¹ɕæ³³dirty; not clean; not hygienicLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2778022436,m,2436,m946ma²¹ɕæ³³ ma²¹gaʔ²¹dirty; not cleanLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777432436,m,2436,m946ma²¹ɤ²¹ ma²¹nɤ²¹proper distance; not too close nor too farLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2777422436,m,m946ma²¹ɤ³⁵ly³³not waver; persistentlyLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2859142436943ma⁵notLisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Fraser 22JF-HLL0
2859062436,m943ma⁵noLisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Fraser 22JF-HLL0
2862212436,m943ma⁵ hchya⁴right (not wrong)Lisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Fraser 22JF-HLL0
2859072436,m943ma⁵ nga⁴noLisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Fraser 22JF-HLL0
2858332436,m943ma⁵ rá⁶miss (not hit)v.Lisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Fraser 22JF-HLL0
2311252436942mɑ³¹NEGLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.270
2175082436,m942mɑ³¹dʒo³³NEG+haveLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.270
4203722436,m1838mɑ³¹dʑo³⁵have, do notv.Lisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.400
2174062436,m942mɑ³¹ŋɑ³³NEG+copulaLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.270
279098m,m,2436,m946ni²¹thɔ³⁵ ma²¹ dʑɔ⁴⁴not different; alike; very similarLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
278935m,m,2436,m946ni³⁵khwa²¹ ma²¹ ʃɿ³³not reconciled to; not contentLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
279023m,m,2436,m946ni³⁵ma³³ ma²¹sa³³worry; be anxious; not quite oneselfLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
279609m,m,m,2436,m946phi²¹phu³³ ni³⁵ ma²¹ phu³not open-minded; think in one way and behave in another; with a forced smileLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
281207m,m,2436.m946thɔ²¹thɔ²¹ ma²¹thɔ²¹often; have or not have businessALisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
273232m,2436,m946tshiʔ²¹ ma²¹ sɯ⁵⁵not sensibleLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
273332m,2436,m946tshɔ³³ ma²¹ tɕa³⁵not as a human beingLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
280770m,2436,m946zø²¹ ma²¹ thɔ²¹not necessaryLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
2807715574,2436,m946zø²¹ ma²¹ zæʔ²¹have no use; not suitable for useLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
282796m,m,2436,m944ɲi²¹thɔ³⁵ ma²¹ dʑɔ⁴⁴not different; alike; very similarLisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
4203712436,m1836mɒ¹¹tʂo⁴⁴have, do notv.Yi (Sani)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.390
1330682436228notAkha486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
1348942436243notAkha (Thai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
1348952436244notAkha (Yunnan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
1420772436,2436346ma~mànotBisu486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Bradley 9x BisuDB-Bisu0
1419972436346ʔàdon'tBisu486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Bradley 9x BisuDB-Bisu0
1348972436633notHani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
1346722436,m633mà djadon'tHani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL290
1350452436,2583633ma pjhöcheapHani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL880
1350482436,2583633mà pjhöcheapHani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL880
2175102436,m510ma³¹dʑa̱³³NEG+haveHani (Dazhai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.310
2174082436,m510ma³¹ŋɯ⁵⁵NEG+copulaHani (Dazhai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.310
2311272436510ma⁵³NEGHani (Dazhai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.310
4203732436,m1839ma³¹dʑa̱³³have, do notv.Hani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.410
13307124361299notHani (Pijo)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
2175352436,282418ma³¹tsa̱³³NEG+haveHani (Caiyuan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.300
16875224361299notHani (Pijo)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
2311522436,2436418mɔ³¹(ma³¹)NEGHani (Caiyuan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.300
2174332436,m418mɔ³¹ŋɤ⁵⁵NEG+copulaHani (Caiyuan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.300
16875124361299mɔ̀notHani (Pijo)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
3006912436630ma³¹NEGHani (Gelanghe)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
3004482436,m630ma³¹dʑa̱³³NEG+haveHani (Gelanghe)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
3004462436,m630ma³¹ŋɤ⁵⁵NEG+copulaHani (Gelanghe)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
1348962436635maqnotHani (Wordlist)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
2175362436,m1416ma³¹tʃa³³NEG+haveHani (Shuikui)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.320
1349002436638mɔ³¹notHaoni486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
23115324361416mɔ³¹NEGHani (Shuikui)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.320
2174342436,m1416mɔ³¹ŋɯ⁵⁵NEG+copulaHani (Shuikui)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.320
1348982436784notHani (Khatu)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
13307324361115mɑ²notMpi486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL650
43491924361120mɑ²NEG / notMpi486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Srinuan 76SD-MPD0
13312924361115ʔɑ²don'tMpi486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL290
4588542436,m1961ma31 be45do not knowPyen486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Shintani 09 PyenST-PL1920080
4592202436,24571968ma21 mɯ21badSila486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Kato 08 LaoKT-LPDR2590
459261m,m,m,m,m,2436,m1968ŋɔ55 ko55 ɯ21 a21 ma̰21 ma21 ŋɤ55I am not Sila.Sila486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Kato 08 LaoKT-LPDR3020
52373724362020ma²²not (NEG)Azha756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL11450
5233842436,m2020ma²²tʂɯ²¹not have; lack; withoutAzha756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL7990
5233822436,m2020ma³³ŋɜ²¹is notAzha756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL7970
52137524362018a²¹don'tSouthern Muji756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL11460
52137424362018ma²¹not (NEG)Southern Muji756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL11450
5211872436,6602018ma²¹ȵi³³badSouthern Muji756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL9710
5210042436,m2018ma³³ʣə²¹not have; lack; withoutSouthern Muji756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL7990
5186152436,m2016mɛ³³xɛ³¹is notPhola756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL7970
51896524362016mɑ³³not (NEG)Phola756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL11450
5187932436,6602016mɑ³³nɑ⁵⁵badPhola756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL9710
5186172436,m2016mɑ³³tʂɔ³¹not have; lack; withoutPhola756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL7990
52258924362019ma³³not (NEG)Hlepho Phowa756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL11450
5224012436,6602019ma³³n̩²¹badHlepho Phowa756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL9710
5224672436,2583,m2019ma³³pʰɸɯ³³ʨʰɛ²¹cheapHlepho Phowa756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL10340
5222132436,m2019ma³³ʑi⁵⁵is notHlepho Phowa756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL7970
5222152436,m2019ma³³ʣə²¹not have; lack; withoutHlepho Phowa756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL7990
5223852436,m2019ma³³ᵐbɿ³³uglyHlepho Phowa756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL9590
5327402436,6602062mə³³ n̩³¹bad, deficientPhu Kha756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Fried 00 PhuKhaRF-PK0
52018524362017ma³³not (NEG)Phuza756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL11450
5198052436,m2017ma³³ʣɔ³¹not have; lack; withoutPhuza756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL7990
5199912436,6602017ma³¹ȵɛ̰¹³badPhuza756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL9710
5198032436,m2017ma³¹ʑi⁵⁵is notPhuza756.1.2.4Southeastern Loloish1Pelkey 11 PhulaJP-CPL7970
5170682436,27451999mə˥ʂu˥dirtyLaze (Xiangjiao)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze122120
5170292436,m1999mə˧dʑɤ˧˥badLaze (Xiangjiao)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze121240
517446m,2436,m1999ɑ˧mɤ˥li˥uglyLaze (Xiangjiao)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze133810
512800m,m,m,2436,m1998dzi˩bi˩ni˩mə˩gv˩˧not be accustomed tov.Na (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
51344624361998negationNa (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
5134472436,m1998mə˧fv˧angryNa (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
5134482436,m1998mə˧gɤ˩not to be resigned; to be recalcitrantNa (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
5134492436,m1998mə˧qʰæ˩feel unwellv.Na (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
5134702436,27451998mɤ˧ʂu˩dirtyNa (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
512724m,m,2436,m1998ɖɯ˧bæ˧mə˧tsɤ˧differentbe v.Na (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
512916m,2436,m1998ə˧mə˧v˧˥uglyNa (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
2311512436908mə³³NEGNaxi (Lijiang)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.280
2311262436,24361676mə³³; mɑ³³NEGNaxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1003.290
2311772436,24361676mə³³; mɑ³³don'tNaxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.290
2175092436,282,2436,2821676mə³³dʑu³³; mɑ³³dʑu³³NEG+haveNaxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.290
4203772436,2821843mə³³dʑy³³have, do notv.Naxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1519.450
2175342436,282908mə³³dʑy³³NEG+haveNaxi (Lijiang)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC736.280
4138942436,m1843mə³³gə²¹regretv.Naxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1376.450
3989522436,m1843mə³³gɯ²¹falseNaxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1048.450
2246232436,m908mə³³gɯ³¹falseNaxi (Lijiang)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC875.280
2245982436,m1676mə³³gɯ³¹falseNaxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC875.290
2174072436,m1676mə³³gɯ¹³NEG+copulaNaxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.290
2242412436,24491676mə³³mv³¹rawNaxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC868.290
3976322436,55151843mə³³thɑ⁵⁵blunt / dullNaxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1021.450
2244192436,m908mə³³thɑ⁵⁵bluntNaxi (Lijiang)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC871.280
2312022436,2681908mə³³tʰɑ³¹don'tNaxi (Lijiang)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC1004.280
2174322436,m908mə³³uɑ³¹NEG+copulaNaxi (Lijiang)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC734.280
4022112436,m1843mə³³xæ⁵⁵pitiable / pitifulNaxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1116.450
4137662436,m1843mə³³xɯ²¹hatev.Naxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1373.450
4251542436,m1843mə³³xɯ²¹angry, be / take offensev.Naxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1621.450
2171012436,m1676mə³³xɯ³³angryNaxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC728.290
2171772436,m908mə³³xɯ³¹hateNaxi (Lijiang)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC729.280
3805702436,m,m1843mə³³ȵi⁵⁵ȵi²¹difference / distinctionnNaxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0691.450
2235272436,27451676mə³³ʂu³¹dirtyNaxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC854.290
3079702436,m1235m◦ɨ̂ndon'tPa-O507Karenic1Solnit 89 PaODBS-PaO0

Chinese comparandum

無 OC *mi̯wo, GSR #103a ‘no, not have’; Coblin 86:113 ST *mjaɣ > OC *mjag; Schuessler 2007:518-19 *ma; B & S 2011: *ma; Mand. .

S:507


^ 1.
This is an excellent example of the original “overcounting” numeral system of Mongsen Ao (cf. Coupe 2007, Clark 1893). The individual morphemes are are as follows: ‘twenty-NEG-be.complete-seven’, i.e. “the seven before the twenty”.
^ 2.
[Source note] assimilates in place to following consonant
^ 3.
[Source note] NEG-be.good
^ 4.
[Source note] cf. ‘poison’.