3.0 Natural Objects, Plants, Foods > 3.2 Natural Objects > 3.2.5 Landforms and geographical features

#2322 PTB *kl(y)u(ŋ/k) VALLEY / RIVER

Reconstructed mesoroots below:

This is an East / Southeast Asian areal word; cf. Siamese khlɔɔŋ, Old Mon kruŋ, Cham krauŋ. HPTB reconstructs two separate roots (*kluŋ ⪤ kluk and *klyoŋ), although it suggests that the two are related. We treat them here as co-allofamic.

Chinese kuk ~ gi̯uk ‘valley’ reflects the allofam with final stop.

It seems likely that this etymon is related to #1277 PTB *grawk RAVINE / VALLEY.

rnanalysislgidreflexglossgfnlanguagegrpidgrpnogrpgeneticcitationsrcabbrsrcidrn
5151952322,23222012klu(ː)ŋ ⪤ k(l)ukvalley / river*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB5960
201172322174kluːŋriver*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Chou 72ACST1172v0
720752322182kluːŋriver, valley*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Benedict 72 STCSTC1270
51519723222012klyoŋstream / river / valley*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB5960
52907123222031koŋriver*Tangkhulic661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-Tk6440
25958723221471kongriverTangkhul661.3.4Tangkhulic1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
30636023221470koŋriverTangkhul661.3.4Tangkhulic1Bhat 69 TNVBhat-TNV950
52628423222027koŋriverTangkhul (Northern)661.3.4Tangkhulic1Brown 37 IndoBRO18370
52634523222028koŋriverTangkhul (Standard)661.3.4Tangkhulic1Brown 37 IndoBRO18370
62088323222024kõriverTusom661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-TkNature.0900
52677523222025koŋriverUkhrul661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-Tk0
52580423222025koŋriverUkhrul661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-Tk0
699992322685kruŋvalley, daleJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Benedict 72 STCSTC1270
2011823221561kluŋriverTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Chou 72ACST1172v0
6999823221578kluŋriver, valleyTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC1270
30344023221578kluŋriverTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC39n1290
3465432322,m1804kluŋ marivernTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0030.010
628323221562ldźoŋslarge valleyTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT7420
30344423221578ldźoŋsvalley (large)Tibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC40n1290
2602122322,s1564luṅ◦pavalleyTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
3462362322,s1837loŋ wavalleynTibetan (Xiahe)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0025.040
62842322892kyoŋriverLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT7420
3034422322900kyoŋriverLepcha212.1.3Lepcha1Benedict 72 STCSTC40n1290
346264191,23221829lɔ̃³¹khauŋ³⁵valleynBola (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0025.320
344722322382khlon̊streamBurmese (Inscriptional)446.1.1Burmish1Okell 71JO-PB0
1339812322394khloŋriverBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL2880
309362322400khyokchasm, gulfBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Matisoff 83 TILJAM-TIL770
4373762322406khyok( prn. gyok ) chasm, gulfBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
2595942322392khyoṅ:riverBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
344712322404khyon̊:streamBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Okell 71JO-PB0
4384402322406khyoŋvalleyBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
4384412322406khyôŋstreamBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
2602032322392khyuiṅvalleyBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
1475022322409khyuiŋconcave; concave piece of ground, valleyBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 72 STCSTC1270
4386392322406khyuiŋʼconcave; valleyBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
346263191,23221828lɔ̃³⁵khauŋ²¹valleynLangsu (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0025.310
45311123221965khyɔ́ŋriverMarma446.1.1Burmish1Huziwara 08 SakHK-Sak2770
3447623221029kyaūngstreamMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Okell 71JO-PB0
3447523221503hklònstreamTavoyan446.1.1Burmish1Okell 71JO-PB0
34652623221831khɹoŋ⁵⁵rivernNusu (Central)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0030.340
38809823221831khɹoŋ⁵⁵classifier for riverclfNusu (Central)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0837.340
3348692322,m1219khɹõ⁵⁵ɑ̃⁵⁵riverNusu (Northern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
1808992322,m1215khɹɔ̃⁵⁵ɑ̃³¹riverNusu (Bijiang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC18.450
346536p,23221842a³³khrɔ⁴⁴rivernJinuo476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0030.440
180919p,2322696a³³khɹɔ³³riverJinuo476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC18.340
300710p,2322700ɑ⁴⁴khɹɔ⁴⁴riverJinuo (Youle)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Gai 86JZ-Jinuo0
309655m,23221235thì khrɔ̀ŋriver, stream, gorgePa-O507Karenic1Solnit 89 PaODBS-PaO0
307279m,2322,m1235thì khrɔ̀ŋ pháŋbank of river (2)Pa-O507Karenic1Solnit 89 PaODBS-PaO0
309653m,2322,m1235thì khrɔ̀ŋ tànriverPa-O507Karenic1Solnit 89 PaODBS-PaO0
61047623222207(Yangzi) riverChinese (Hanzi)529Sinitic1BaxterSagart 2011WHBLS-201113240
61006123222207valleyChinese (Hanzi)529Sinitic1BaxterSagart 2011WHBLS-20119090
6132362322,2322,2322,2322481kuk/kuk~gi̯uk/i̯wokvalleyChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Karlgren 57 GSRGSR1202a-c0
3291202322481kŭng/kɑ̊ngriver (Yangtze);riverChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Karlgren 57 GSRGSR1172v0
205792322480kǔŋ/kəŋriverChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Chou 72ACST1172v0
60032523222210C.|qˤokvalleyChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0BaxterSagart 2011WHBLS-20119090
2954472322471KHju/onriverChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0Baxter 92WHB-OC11260
2962112322471krong(Yangtze) riverChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0Baxter 92WHB-OC18660
2946172322471krongYangtze riverChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0Baxter 92WHB-OC3120
60074023222210kˤroŋ(Yangzi) riverChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0BaxterSagart 2011WHBLS-201113240
59625123222209kuwkvalleyChinese (Middle)549.0.2Middle Chinese0BaxterSagart 2011WHBLS-20119090
59217723222208valleyChinese (Mandarin)559.0.3Modern Chinese0BaxterSagart 2011WHBLS-20119090
59259223222208jiāng(Yangzi) riverChinese (Mandarin)559.0.3Modern Chinese0BaxterSagart 2011WHBLS-201113240

Chinese comparandum

谷 OC *kuk~gi̯uk, GSR #1202a-c ‘valley’; B & S 2011: *C.qˤok; Mand. .
江 OC *kŭng, GSR #1172v ‘(Yangtze) river’; B & S 2011: *kˤroŋ; Mand. jiāng.