1.0 The Body > 1.7 Internal Organs > 1.7.3 Liver > 1.7.3.1 Gall/Bile

#229 PTB *b-ka-n/m/ŋ BITTER / SALTY / BILE / LIVER

Reconstructed mesoroots below:

This root acquired all three nasal codas (*‑n, *‑n, *‑ŋ) in various languages, but by far the most common allofam is the open syllable form.

rnanalysislgidreflexglossgfnlanguagegrpidgrpnogrpgeneticcitationsrcabbrsrcidrn
19613229164b-|kɑ-|nliver*Sino-Tibetan10Sino-Tibetan (previously published reconstructions)0Chou 72ACST139l0
5151342292012b-|ka-n|bitter / liver*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB5940
5292052292032b-|ka-|nbitter / liver*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Mortensen 12 TkDRM-Tk0
7655229175kabitter*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
31314229178kabitter*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 83 TILJAM-TIL50
60663229181kabitter*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB10
71956229182kabitter*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Benedict 72 STCSTC80
76554229183ka (*B)bitter / difficult*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Coblin 86WSC-SH440
144532229180ka-(|m,|n,|ŋ)|bitter / bile*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 78 VSTBJAM-VSTB(2)0
19512229174word / speech*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Chou 72ACST1q0
19540229174bitter*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Chou 72ACST49u0
283038229,229173ko~ kaːbitter*Tani51.1.1Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST290
151378229,m285ko-čibitterApatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
173125229,m287ko-čiʔbitterApatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST0
151379229,m286ko-čʰiʔbitterApatani731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
151380229,m334kəː-čakbitterBengni731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
173126229,m333kɯː-čakbitterBengni731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST0
160613229,m,m,m334kɯː-čak bɯ-rjakvery bitterBengni731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
173127229,m360kaː-čakbitterBokar731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST0
151381229,m365kaː-čakbitterBokar731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun J 93 TaniJS-Tani0
400285229,m1820kaː◦tɕakbitterBokar731.1.1.1Western Tani1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.240
225323229,m368kaː tɕakbitterBokar Lhoba731.1.1.1Western Tani1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.510
44458229,m564ka◦cakbitterGalo731.1.1.1Western Tani1Das Gupta 63 GalKDG-IGL0
4424291,229564pi◦kospleenGalo731.1.1.1Western Tani1Das Gupta 63 GalKDG-IGL0
489490229,m1979`kaa◦cakbitteradj.Galo731.1.1.1Western Tani1Rɨbaa,Post,et al. 09GLDC-GED0
46093229,m1444kɤ◦cakbitterTagin731.1.1.1Western Tani1Das Gupta 83 TagKDG-Tag0
173128229,m1253ko-saŋbitterPadam-Mishing [Abor-Miri]741.1.1.2Eastern Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST0
174352229,m1253ko-saŋsourPadam-Mishing [Abor-Miri]741.1.1.2Eastern Tani1Sun J 93 HCSTJS-HCST 1
1177p,229,m1070a-ka-ɲibitterMilang741.1.1.2Eastern Tani1Tayeng 76 MilAT-MPB0
3398332291800ʼka:bitterDarang [Taraon]61.1.2Deng1Anonymous xx TarNEFA-Taraon0
3421692291800ʼka:taste (bitter)Darang [Taraon]61.1.2Deng1Anonymous xx TarNEFA-Taraon0
4002842291819khɑ⁵³bitterKaman [Miju]61.1.2Deng1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.230
225347229592khɑ⁵³bitterKaman [Miju]61.1.2Deng1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.480
48676229660kabitterIdu61.1.2Deng1Anonymous 62 IduNEFA-PBI0
225348229662kɑ⁵⁵bitterIdu61.1.2Deng1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.500
4002862291821kɑ⁵⁵bitterYidu61.1.2Deng1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.250
500456229,229,2291920khaa-|I, khaat ⪤ khaak-|IIBITTER*Chin81.2Kuki-Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
4436392291930khabitterPaite681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
4436402291927hkā hībitterSizang681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
443638229,2291926khâa-|I, khâat-|IIbitterThado681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
4436372291925khaː¹ > khaːk¹bitterTiddim681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
3141552291778khaː¹ > khaːk¹bitterviTiddim681.2.1.1Northern Chin1Bhaskararao 96 CDBPB-CLDB7310
1705792291597khaː¹/khaːk¹bitterTiddim681.2.1.1Northern Chin1Bhaskararao 94 TCVPB-TCV0
3277602291794ˊxaː/ˊxaːkbittervTiddim681.2.1.1Northern Chin1Henderson 65 TidCEJAH-TC0
4436422291948kʻóbitterAsho691.2.1.2Southern Plains Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
4436412291928khabitter (as taste)be v.Cho (Mindat)691.2.1.2Southern Plains Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
4436432291929khoobitterKhumi691.2.1.2Southern Plains Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
4436352291923khâa-INVbitterbe v.Lai (Falam)701.2.2Central Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
443634229,2291947khàa-|I, khaat-|IIbitterbe v.Lai (Hakha)701.2.2Central Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
237787229976khabitterLushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
3160152291779khabitterviLushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1Bhaskararao 96 CDBPB-CLDB25360
58676229983khabitterLushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB10
69259229984khabitterLushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1Benedict 72 STCSTC80
76113229986khabitterLushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1Coblin 86WSC-SH440
4436362291924khà-I, khâak-IIbitterbe v.Lushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
113891m,229,m871hmô khaw tibileLakher [Mara]711.2.3Maraic1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
4436332291921khābitterLakher [Mara]711.2.3Maraic1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC4250
2377702291019khabitterMaring111.3“Naga” Areal Group0Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
619169p,2292229a-khaʔBITTERbe v.*Central Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNIII.0100
618847p,2292228a-khaʔBITTERbe v.*Ao631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.0740
619549p,2292226a³-kuʔ¹bitterbe v.Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNII.0740
237760p,229270ta◦kubitterAo (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
4252p,229275³ta¹kuʔbitterAo (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
237761p,229273tü◦khabitterAo (Mongsen: Longchang)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
450399p,2291963(NZP-) kháʔbitterbe v.Ao (Mongsen: Mangmetong)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Coupe 07 AoARC-GMA0
450400229,2337,m1963kha-tsə◦phabitterly afraid ('be bitter' + 'fear')be v.Ao (Mongsen: Mangmetong)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Coupe 07 AoARC-GMA0
450508229,m1963kha◦ɹabitter gourdn.Ao (Mongsen: Mangmetong)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Coupe 07 AoARC-GMA0
6202252292231kho²-bitterbe v.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 PCNDWB-PCNIII.0100
617034p,229,s2220e◦kho◦vbitterLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Murry 78LLC-ALV100
237767229,s963kho◦abitterLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
237775p,2291364a◦khabitterSangtam631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
237780229,m1639khu◦labitterYacham631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
4251p,2291671²a-(²)kɯʔ|bitterYimchungrü631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
237763p,229486kü◦khubitterChokri651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
4250229421¹khubitterChokri651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
2377682291017kakhabitterMao651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
237774m,2291335ke◦khabitterRengma651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
52461390,2291337²ma²|tšẽ²kabileRengma (Northern)651.3.2Angami-Pochuri Group1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT383a0
237764229790kakababitterKhoirao641.3.3Zeme Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
237766229906kakhabubitterLiangmei641.3.3Zeme Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2377692291018khabitterMaram641.3.3Zeme Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2377732291301khanubitterPuiron641.3.3Zeme Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
237772229,m1347ku◦meibitterRongmei / Nruanghmei641.3.3Zeme Group1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
4254m,2291346n-xǔbitterRongmei / Nruanghmei641.3.3Zeme Group1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
5287632292031kʰabitter*Tangkhulic661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-Tk3190
526607m,2292023kə-kʰebitterHuishu661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-TkVerbs.1440
526495m,2292022kə-kʰubitterKachai661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-TkVerbs.1250
2377772291471kakhabitterTangkhul661.3.4Tangkhulic1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
3051082291470khabitterTangkhul661.3.4Tangkhulic1Bhat 69 TNVBhat-TNV850
621191m,2292024kə-kʰibitterTusom661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-TkVerbs.1630
525764m,2292025kə-kʰabitterbe v.Ukhrul661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-Tk0
42482291038khàbitterMeithei131.4Meithei1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
237788229,m1041kha◦babitterMeithei131.4Meithei1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
106411390,2291040məsiŋ◦gagall bladderMeithei131.4Meithei1Singh 91 MeiQCYS-Meithei9.5.20
761387,2291037tin◦kʰabileMeithei131.4Meithei1Abbi 85AAAM-SSM0
533273m,2292064bi-kaliver*Bodo-Garo161.7.1Bodo-Garo1Burling 59 PBoRB-PB4420
144527m,229711bi-kaliverBodo801.7.1.1Bodo1Matisoff 78 VSTBJAM-VSTB(2)0
7219m,229349bi-kaʔliverBodo801.7.1.1Bodo1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT11290
317680229350bittervBodo801.7.1.1Bodo1Bhat 68 BoroBhat-Boro0
317682229350kalétaste a little bittervBodo801.7.1.1Bodo1Bhat 68 BoroBhat-Boro0
317890229350kalétaste a little bitterBodo801.7.1.1Bodo1Bhat 68 BoroBhat-Boro0
237784229531kha◦babitterDimasa801.7.1.1Bodo1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
55778m,229803bə-kʰaliver , chest etc.Kokborok801.7.1.1Bodo1Tripuri 88PT-Kok0
55590229,229803kə=kʰabitterKokborok801.7.1.1Bodo1Tripuri 88PT-Kok0
47633229880khaʔheart / chestLalung [Tiwa]801.7.1.1Bodo1Balawan 65MB-Lal110
47635229,91880kha◦brispleenLalung [Tiwa]801.7.1.1Bodo1Balawan 65MB-Lal110
7218m,229568bi-kaliverGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT11290
144526m,229574bi-kaliverGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Matisoff 78 VSTBJAM-VSTB(2)0
4243229,m568kaʔ-abitterGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
69258229579khabitterGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Benedict 72 STCSTC80
76112229580khabitterGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Coblin 86WSC-SH440
144528229,227574kha-khitbileGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Matisoff 78 VSTBJAM-VSTB(2)0
144534229,227574kha-khitbile, gallGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Matisoff 78 VSTBJAM-VSTB(3)0
60178229,227578kha-khitbileGaro811.7.1.2Garo1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB1660
71517229,227579kha-khitbileGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Benedict 72 STCSTC4120
144810m,229581bi-kaliverGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 92 GaBaRB-GB0
465467m,2291945bi-kalivernGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG6.27-II:idx0
466620229,m1945ka•-abitterviGaro (Bangladesh)811.7.1.2Garo1Burling 03 GaroRB-LMMG3.682-II:idx0
4744452291973ka•-bitteradj1Atong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
4745402291973kha•-bitterbe v.Atong821.7.1.3Koch1van Breugel 08 AtongSVB-GA0
167622m,229513ci-kā²liverDeori/Deuri831.7.1.4Deori1unknownDeuri0
294182229514ka◦barebitterDeori/Deuri831.7.1.4Deori1Brown 95WBB-Deuri700
78546229161C̥-|kʰaᴮbitter*Northern Naga121.7.2Northern Naga/Konyakian1French 83WTF-PNN4590
2377712291188akhabitterNocte841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
42442291187khaʔbitterNocte841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
42462291488¹kha(ʔ)bitterTangsa841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
237762229,m429kha◦wükbübitterChang851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
4247p,229,m786¹²a³ko̥ᴜ²³sakbitterKhiamngan851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
237765229,m807kha◦bubitterKonyak851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
2377792291628kabitterWancho851.7.2.2Konyak-Chang1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
237786229669khabitterJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
31659229676khábitterJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Matisoff 74 TJLBJAM-TJLB2860
69256229685khabitterJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Benedict 72 STCSTC80
76110229687khabitterJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Coblin 86WSC-SH440
334759229679kha⁵⁵bitterJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Liu 84JZ-Jingpo0
4002802291814kha⁵⁵bitterJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.190
225321229690kha⁵⁵bitterJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.470
113912779,229671pù-hká?bladder / gallJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
4245229667³khabitterJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
261640229,m721khā◦pābitteradjKaike222.1.2Bodic1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN12b.250
225302229,m1088kha◦lubitterTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.70
297329229,m1085kʻa⁵⁵lu¹³bitterTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
297885229,m1089kha-wanbitterTsangla (Tilang)222.1.2Bodic1Zhang Jichuan 86JZ-CLMenba0
298730229,m1093khɑu⁵⁵ɣu⁵⁵bitterTshona (Wenlang)222.1.2Bodic1Lu 86 CuoMJZ-CNMenba0
225326229,m1092khᴀ⁵³po⁵³bitterTshona (Mama)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.60
400268229,m1851kha lubitterMotuo Menba222.1.2Bodic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.070
400267229,m1850kha⁵⁵ti⁵³bitterCuona Menba222.1.2Bodic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.060
399906229,s1848rka modifficultTibetan (Alike)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1067.050
224815229,s1550hka ɣədifficultTibetan (Amdo:Bla-brang)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC879.40
225325229,m1550kha wobitterTibetan (Amdo:Bla-brang)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.40
35987229,s1584hkæ-modifficultTibetan (Amdo:Zeku)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun J 85 AmdoJS-Amdo1890
2253012291585khabitterTibetan (Amdo:Zeku)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.50
35871229,m1584qhæ.wobitter (taste)Tibetan (Amdo:Zeku)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun J 85 AmdoJS-Amdo730
224791229,s1585rka modifficultTibetan (Amdo:Zeku)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC879.50
2917892291586x̣o·bitterTibetan (Balti)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Rangan 75RAN1975740
2914342291586x̣ɔbitterTibetan (Balti)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Rangan 75RAN1975620
400265229,m1826kha⁵⁵mᴜ⁵³bitterTibetan (Batang)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.030
225324229,m1557khaʔ⁵³tiʔ⁵³bitter (N)Tibetan (Lhasa)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.20
400264229,m1815khə⁵⁵ti⁵²bitterTibetan (Lhasa)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.020
761092291580dka-badifficultyTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Coblin 86WSC-SH440
37771229,m1575dka.bodifficultTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun J 85 TbGlJS-Tib1890
399902229,s1804dkaɦ modifficultTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1067.010
239988229,s1564dka◦badifficultTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
400263229,m1804kha mobitterTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.010
225299229,m1582kha tigbitter (N)Tibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.10
312132291572kha-babitterTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Matisoff 83 TILJAM-TIL50
58674229,s1577kha-babitterTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB10
692552291578kha-babitterTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC80
761082291580kha-babitterTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Coblin 86WSC-SH440
376552291575kha.◦babitter (taste)Tibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun J 85 TbGlJS-Tib730
237791229,m1564kha◦pobitterTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
399905229,s1837hka modifficultTibetan (Xiahe)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1067.040
400266229,m1837kha wobitterTibetan (Xiahe)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.040
174819229172ᴬkambitter, bile*TGTM232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis220
6128229597kãːbileGurung232.1.4Tamangish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT7200
144530229599kãːbileGurung232.1.4Tamangish1Matisoff 78 VSTBJAM-VSTB(2)0
64741229604kãːbileGurung (Ghachok)232.1.4Tamangish1Glover 72 GuVoSIL-Gur2.A.710
65505229,m604kãːbaːqbitterGurung (Ghachok)232.1.4Tamangish1Glover 72 GuVoSIL-Gur12.B.250
113877229602kḁ̄ːbileGurung (Ghachok)232.1.4Tamangish1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
261635229,m596kā̩:bā:qbitteradjGurung232.1.4Tamangish1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN12b.250
174817229600¹kãːbileGurung (Ghachok)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis220
174818229600¹kãː-bitterGurung (Ghachok)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis220
80289m,m,229,s999ga² lᴇː² ka² badifficultManang (Gyaru)232.1.4Tamangish1Nagano 84 ManYN-Man345-020
1261622291455¹kambilenTamang (Risiangku)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 91 TamQMM-TamRisQ9.5.10
1748092291456¹kamgall / bileTamang (Risiangku)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis220
1748102291456¹kambitterTamang (Risiangku)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis220
1748202291462²kambitterTamang (Sahu)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis230
1138792291459¹kambileTamang (Sahu)232.1.4Tamangish1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
1748212291467kambileTamang (Taglung)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis230
61272291521kambileThakali232.1.4Tamangish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT7200
1748242291524⁵¹kʌmbileThakali (Marpha)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis230
1748252291524⁵⁵'⁴⁴kʌm-mubitterThakali (Marpha)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis230
1748272291526⁵⁴kʌmbileThakali (Syang)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis230
1138802291527kambileThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
1445312291528kambileThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Matisoff 78 VSTBJAM-VSTB(2)0
670682291531kɔmbileThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak2.A.710
1748232291530²kəmbitterThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis230
1748222291530ᴴkəmbileThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Mazaudon 94 TheseMM-Thesis230
2616452291166khāyubitteradjNewar272.2Newar1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN12b.250
92252291177khayubitterNewar (Kathmandu)272.2Newar1Genetti 90 KathCG-Kath0
89902291176khayɔubitterNewar (Dolakhali)272.2Newar1Genetti 90 DolaCG-Dolak0
72889229,m547khaːkpɨbitterDumi772.3.3Central Kiranti1Driem 93 DumiSVD-Dum0
72888229,m547khaː◦nɨbitter, taste bitterbe v.Dumi772.3.3Central Kiranti1Driem 93 DumiSVD-Dum0
261644229,m752kāe◦pāebitteradjKhaling772.3.3Central Kiranti1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN12b.250
142721229754khangbileKhaling772.3.3Central Kiranti1Michailovsky 91 KrBM-PK770
113889229755khangbileKhaling772.3.3Central Kiranti1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
144529229756khangbileKhaling772.3.3Central Kiranti1Matisoff 78 VSTBJAM-VSTB(2)0
113900229,m301kha◦lispleen;bileBahing302.3.4Western Kiranti1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
120300229641khabitterbe v.Hayu302.3.4Western Kiranti1Michailovsky 89 H2BM-Hay84.142,2150
261643229,m1433'kā-syobitteradjSunwar302.3.4Western Kiranti1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN12b.250
261639229759'kāobitteradjKham282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN12b.250
113881229763'kāːbileKham282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
12680229766kaːbileKham282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Watters 89 KhQDNW-KhamQ2.A.710
261638229,m990khā-kebitteradjMagar282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Hale 73 CSDAH-CSDPN12b.250
116792p,229994me-kheintestines / bowelsMagar282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Matisoff 87 BPJAM-Ety0
144590p,229995me-khegutsMagar282.4Kham-Magar-Chepang1Matisoff 78 VSTBJAM-VSTB0
1321852291493khɑ²intestinesTangut [Xixia]333.1Tangut1Sofronov 97MVS-Grin0
189734m,229561ndzɿ³³khuɑ⁵⁵buckwheat (bitter)Ersu343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.180
400277229,m1811khi⁵⁵mu⁵⁵bitterGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.160
225306229,m595khi⁵⁵mu⁵⁵bitterGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.170
400279m,2291813de³³kha⁵³bitterLyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.180
400383m,2291813de³³kha⁵³saltyLyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1076.180
4003802729,2291810tshə⁵³qhə³³saltyMuya343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1076.150
400276m,2291810tə̱³³qha⁵³bitterMuya343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.150
2253052291136qha³⁵bitterMuya [Minyak]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.150
189709m,2291147ji³³qha³³buckwheat (bitter)Namuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.190
2253072291147qha³⁵bitterNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.190
2254092291147qha³⁵saltyNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC891.190
366179m,2291844ji³¹qha⁵³buckwheatnNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0413.460
400307m,2291844luo³¹qha³¹bitterNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.460
400411m,2291844luo³¹qha³¹saltyNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1076.460
400500m,2291844luo³¹qha³¹astringentNamuyi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1078.460
400312229,m,m1805qhɑ¹¹tʂɿ⁵⁵tʂɿ¹¹bitterPumi (Jiulong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.100
4002712291805qhɑ⁵⁵bitterPumi (Jiulong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.100
4003752729,2291805tshi⁵⁵qhɑ¹¹saltyPumi (Jiulong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1076.100
4002702291853qhɑ¹³bitterPumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.090
4003742291853qhɑ¹³saltyPumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1076.090
2253042291306qhɑ¹³bitterPumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.110
2254062291306qhɑ¹³saltyPumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC891.110
225328229,m1309kha³⁵mə⁵³bitterPumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.100
225430229,m1309kha³⁵mə⁵³saltyPumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC891.100
510411m,2291996dà qhàhave bitter taste in mouthQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang18690
5095362291996qhàbitter, saltyQiang (Longxi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15270
2253272291320qhɑbitterQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.80
4002692291852qhɑχbitterQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.080
2254292729,2291320tshə qhɑsaltyQiang (Mawo)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC891.80
5095352291997qhàbitterQiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15270
5104102291997qhàhave bitter taste in mouth ('bitter')Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang18690
5095402729,2291997tshɨ̀-qhásalty [salt-bitter]Qiang (Mianchi)343.2Qiangic1Evans 99 QiangJPE-SQiang15300
2253032291323qhɑ⁵⁵bitterQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.90
2254052729,2291323tshɿ⁵⁵qhɑ⁵⁵saltyQiang (Taoping)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC891.90
2254332729,2291699tshi⁵⁵kha⁵³saltyQueyu (Yajiang) [Zhaba]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC891.160
4003782729,m,229,m1808tɕhi⁵⁵tə³³qa⁵⁵si³¹saltyQueyu (Xinlong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1076.130
189733m,2291699ʐõ³⁵qa⁵⁵buckwheat (bitter)Queyu (Yajiang) [Zhaba]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.160
400278229,m1812qhɑo⁵⁵(sõ³³)bitterXumi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.170
2253332291409qhɑ⁵⁵bitterXumi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.200
4003822729,2291812tshɛ⁵⁵qhɑo³³saltyXumi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1076.170
2254352729,2291409tshɐ⁵⁵qhɑ⁵⁵saltyXumi343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC891.200
225329229,m1340kə tʃapbitterrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.120
400272229,m1806kə tʃɑpbitterrGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.110
330067229,m1797kə-qʰʃevbitterCaodeng783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 CaoJS-Caodeng0
329706229,m1796kA cakbitterrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Nagano 97 GyQGyarong.Nag1610
332607229,m1799kə-tʃapbitterrGBenzhen783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 rGBJS-rGBenzhe0
189747m,229269guɑ³¹khɑ⁵⁵buckwheat (bitter)Anong384Nungic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.440
4002822291817kha⁵⁵bitterNung384Nungic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.210
225345229269khɑ⁵⁵bitterAnong384Nungic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.440
4002812291816kɑ⁵³bitterDulong384Nungic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.200
225346229537kɑ⁵⁵bitterTrung [Dulong]384Nungic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.460
189748m,229537pɯ³¹kɑ⁵⁵buckwheat (bitter)Trung [Dulong]384Nungic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.460
58672229539ka⁵⁵bitterTrung [Dulong] (Dulonghe)384Nungic1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB10
58673229541kha⁵³bitterTrung [Dulong] (Nujiang)384Nungic1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB10
299720229540khɑ⁵³bitterTrung [Dulong] (Nujiang)384Nungic1Sun H 82 DulJZ-Dulong0
127416229,2103,m1612ka²¹ bu²¹ lo⁵⁵intestines / bowelsTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuMQCK-TujMQ9.110
1274092291612kã³³liverTujia415Tujia1Chen 86 TuMQCK-TujMQ9.50
435462291617kã³³liverTujia (Southern)415Tujia1Tian 86JZ-Tujia0
622115229139ka²BITTER*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1Matisoff 88 DLJAM-DL2760
38587229,1390201khau⁵⁵ ʂɑ⁵⁵liverAchang (Lianghe)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
38589229,b201khu³¹ tan⁵¹gallAchang (Lianghe)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
288360229201khɑ³¹bitterAchang (Lianghe)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
4002892291824xɔ³¹bitterAchang (Longchuan)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.280
225318229200xɔ³¹bitterAchang (Longchuan)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.410
38724229207kan⁵⁵liverAchang (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
287536229207kha⁵⁵bitterAchang (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
4002902291825xɔ³¹bitterAchang (Xiandao)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.290
4002932291829kha³⁵bitterBola (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.320
4002882291823khɑ⁵⁵bitterBurmese (Rangoon)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.270
2253432291428khɑ⁵⁵bitterBurmese (Spoken Rangoon)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.400
4235229390khàbitterBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
133163229394khâbitterBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL720
31210229400khabitterBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Matisoff 83 TILJAM-TIL50
31660229401khâbitterBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Matisoff 74 TJLBJAM-TJLB2860
439721229406khâbitterBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
58675229407khàbitterBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1LaPolla 87RJL-DPTB10
69257229409khàbitterBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 72 STCSTC80
76111229410khàbitterBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Coblin 86WSC-SH440
237783229392khā:bitterBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
4002872291822khɑ³bitterBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.260
225317229411khɑ³bitterBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.390
233626229,229,s653khà, khà-ŋbitterHpun (Northern)446.1.1Burmish1Henderson 86 HpunEJAH-Hpun0
4002922291828khɔ³⁵bitterLangsu (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.310
4002942291830khɔː⁵⁵bitterLeqi (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.330
4527282291965khábitterMarma446.1.1Burmish1Huziwara 08 SakHK-Sak940
42372291023khóbitterMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
2253192291034khɔ³⁵bitterMaru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.430
42362291679khóbitterAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
4002912291827kho²¹bitterAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.300
2253442291693kho²¹bitterAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.420
4241229151ka²bitter*Loloish456.1.2Loloish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
11952229152ka²bitter*Loloish456.1.2Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo5500
133162229153ka²bitter*Loloish456.1.2Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL720
13869229584ka³³liverGazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 89 GazhDQ-Gazhuo9.50
4003082291845kha³¹bitterGazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.470
366750229,54941845kha³¹si³³garlicnGazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0424.470
17817229585kʰa³¹bitterGazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 87 GazhDLF-Gazhuo0
142215229,227586kʰɔ³¹tɕi⁵⁵bileGazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 91 TB15DHFRL0
291994229879khàbitterLalo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Björverud 94SB-Lalo0
292179229,5494879khà-sjýgarlicLalo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Björverud 94SB-Lalo0
3356652291219kha⁵⁵bitterNusu (Northern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
4002952291831kha⁵⁵bitterNusu (Central)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.340
3365642291220khɔ⁵⁵bitterNusu (Southern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
2253202291215khɑ⁵³bitterNusu (Bijiang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.450
335020m,2291219ɣɑ³¹khɑ⁵⁵buckwheat (bitter)Nusu (Northern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
335922m,2291220ʔɔ³¹khɔ⁵⁵buckwheat (bitter)Nusu (Southern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
2253342291658khu³³bitterYi (Dafang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.220
4617262291962khɯ³³bitter (taste); taste, bitterYi (Liangshan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Ma 08 YiSIL-Nuosuindex0
159082291661kʰɔ³³bitterYi (Lishan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 87 GazhDLF-Gazhuo0
15936229,2271661kʰɔ³¹ tɕi⁵⁵gall bladderYi (Lishan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 87 GazhDLF-Gazhuo0
2253102291662khᴀ²¹bitterYi (Mile)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.250
189738m,2291663go³³khɒ³³buckwheat (bitter)Yi (Mojiang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.260
2253362291663khɒ³³bitterYi (Mojiang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.260
189737m,2291664go²¹khᴀ²¹buckwheat (bitter)Yi (Nanhua)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.240
4002982291834khɑ²¹bitterYi (Nanhua)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.370
2253352291664khᴀ³³bitterYi (Nanhua)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.240
2253092291666khɑ²¹bitterYi (Nanjian)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.230
189711m,229,m1666ɣɑ²¹khɑ²¹(ɕe²¹)buckwheat (bitter)Yi (Nanjian)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.230
4002972291833khɑ²¹bitterYi (Weishan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.360
366739229,54941833khɑ²¹ɕy⁵⁵garlicnYi (Weishan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0424.360
4002992291835khɒ³³bitterYi (Wuding)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.380
4002962291832khɯ³³bitterYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.350
2253082291670khɯ³³bitterYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.210
225340p,229696a³³khɔ⁵⁵bitterJinuo476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.340
400305p,2291842a⁴⁴khɔ⁴⁴bitterJinuo476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.440
301541p,229700ɑ⁴⁴khɔ⁴⁴bitterJinuo (Youle)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Gai 86JZ-Jinuo0
4769782291969khʌ31bitterKucong476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Dai 09 KucongDC-Kucong0
11953229492hk'aˇbitter*Common Lahu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo5500
4239229830ḳhâbitterLahu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
4003042291841qhɑ⁵³bitterLahu (Lancang)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.430
31661229838qhâbitterLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 74 TJLBJAM-TJLB2860
225314229851qhᴀ⁵³bitterLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.330
189716m,229851ɣᴀ⁵³qhᴀ⁵³buckwheat (bitter)Lahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.330
302798229856qha³bitterLahu (Yellow)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
189713m,229942guɑ³¹khuɑ³¹buckwheat (bitter)Lisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.270
275194m,229946gwa²¹khwa²¹bitter buckwheatLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
284841229943hka⁵bitterLisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Fraser 22JF-HLL0
10860229923hkwa⁵bitterLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo5500
284840229943hkwa⁵bitterLisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Fraser 22JF-HLL0
285403229,5494943hkwa⁵-sye⁴garlic (sp.)Lisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Fraser 22JF-HLL0
302932229945kho³¹bitterLisu (Luquan)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Xu 86 LisuJZ-Lisu0
4003012291838khuɑ³¹bitterLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.400
225311229942khuɑ³¹bitterLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.270
190682229,5494942khuɑ³¹se⁴⁴garlicLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC210.270
4238229921khwàbitterLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT2590
276797229946khwa²¹bitter; salty; strong; (of medicine) effectiveVLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
276800229,m,m,m946khwa²¹ ŋɔ²¹ ma²¹ ŋa³³as bitter as bitter can beLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
276799229,229,m946khwa²¹khwa²¹mu³³bitter; bitter tasteLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
276804229,5494946khwa²¹sø³³garlicNLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
276807229,5494,m,m946khwa²¹sø³³ ɔ⁵⁵ɲɔ³³garlic boltLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
276805229,5494,m946khwa²¹sø³³baʔ²¹garlic cloveLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
276809229,5494,m946khwa²¹sø³³dzi³³garlic shootLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
276808229,5494,m946khwa²¹sø³³phja²¹garlic leafLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
276806229,5494,m946khwa²¹sø³³tʃhɿ³³garlic bulbLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
302971229951khɑ³¹bitterLisu (Yongsheng)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Xu 86 LisuJZ-Lisu0
4003002291836qhɒ¹¹bitterYi (Sani)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.390
134939p,229244jɔ xhàbitterAkha (Yunnan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL720
133164229228xhàbitterAkha486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL720
134938229243xhàbitterAkha (Thai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL720
51220m,229,191344pɛ◦khà◦laŋgallBisu486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Beaudouin 88 BisuPB-Bisu140
141940m,229,191346pɛ◦kʰà◦(làŋ)bileBisu486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Bradley 9x BisuDB-Bisu0
141942p,229346ʔaŋ◦khàbitterBisu486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Bradley 9x BisuDB-Bisu0
225313229510xa³¹bitterHani (Dazhai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.310
190684229,5494510xa³¹se⁵⁵garlicHani (Dazhai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC210.310
134941229633xhàbitterHani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL720
189715m,229510ɣa³¹xa³¹buckwheat (bitter)Hani (Dazhai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.310
4003022291839xa³¹bitterHani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.410
366744229,54941839xa³¹se⁵⁵garlicnHani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0424.410
225338229418khɔ³¹bitterHani (Caiyuan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.300
1349432291299khɔ̀bitterHani (Pijo)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL720
300601229630xa³¹bitterHani (Gelanghe)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
134940229635haqbitterHani (Wordlist)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL720
134944229638xɔ³¹bitterHaoni486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL720
2253392291416xɔ³¹bitterHani (Shuikui)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.320
190710229,54941416xɔ³¹sɛ⁵⁵garlicHani (Shuikui)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC210.320
189741m,2291416ɣa³¹xɔ³¹buckwheat (bitter)Hani (Shuikui)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.320
134942229784khòbitterHani (Khatu)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL720
4003032291840xɔ³¹bitterHani (Mojiang)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.420
366745229,54941840xɔ³¹sɛ⁵⁵garlicnHani (Mojiang)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0424.420
1331692291115khɑ¹bitterMpi486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL720
458872m,2291961ʔaŋ33 kha31bitterPyen486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Shintani 09 PyenST-PL2020060
517662m,2291999jɑ˧qʰɑ˧buckwheat sp., Fagopyrum tartaricum GaertnLaze (Xiangjiao)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze140020
5170472291999qʰɑ˧bitterLaze (Xiangjiao)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze121690
5170492729,2291999tsʰe˧qʰɑ˧too saltyLaze (Xiangjiao)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze121710
513153m,2291998jɤ˧qʰɑ#˥buckwheat sp., Fagopyrum tartaricum GaertnNa (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
5137582291998qʰɑ˧bitterNa (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
5142272729,2291998tsʰe˧qʰɑ˩too saltyNa (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze10
4003062291843khɑ³³bitterNaxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.450
4004102291843khɑ³³saltyNaxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1076.450
225337229908khɑ³³bitterNaxi (Lijiang)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.280
2253122291676khɑ³³bitterNaxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.290
2254142291676khɑ³³saltyNaxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC891.290
2254392729,229908tshe³³khɑ³³saltyNaxi (Lijiang)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC891.280
366191m,2291843ə⁵⁵khɑ³³buckwheatnNaxi436.2Naxi1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0413.450
189739m,229908ə⁵⁵khɑ³³buckwheat (bitter)Naxi (Lijiang)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.280
189714m,2291676ʑɑ³³khɑ³³buckwheat (bitter)Naxi (Yongning)436.2Naxi1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.290
56588229124kháqbitter*Karen (Pwo-Sgaw)507Karenic1Jones 61RBJ-KLS420
56583229126kháqbitter*Karen (TP)507Karenic1Jones 61RBJ-KLS420
57854229122kháqbitter*Karen507Karenic1Jones 61RBJ-KLS420
56585229123kháqbitter*Karen (Pwo)507Karenic1Jones 61RBJ-KLS420
5296332292039kha²bitter*Karen [Burling]507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
56590229125kháʔbitter*Karen (Sgaw)507Karenic1Jones 61RBJ-KLS420
5293042292038khaᴮbitter*Karen507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
5309672292044khe³³bitterBwe507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
4003112291849kha³¹bitterKaren507Karenic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.500
5306732292043khe¹¹bitterKayah507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
5303792292042kha¹¹bitterKayan507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
4966302291981kʰâbitterADJKayan (Pekon)507Karenic1Manson 10 KayanKM-Kayan0
5312152292045kha¹¹bitterKayaw507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
3074002291235khábitterPa-O507Karenic1Solnit 89 PaODBS-PaO0
565842291242khábitterPa-O507Karenic1Jones 61RBJ-KLS420
5301112292041kha³³bitterPa-O (Southern)507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
5298362292040kha⁵⁵bitterPa-O (Northern)507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
565892291259kháqbitterPalaychi507Karenic1Jones 61RBJ-KLS420
5321412292048kha³³bitterPwo (Northern)507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
5324222292049kha⁵⁵bitterPwo (Southern)507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
565872291272khàbitterPwo (Bassein)507Karenic1Jones 61RBJ-KLS420
565862291279kháʔbitterPwo (Moulmein)507Karenic1Jones 61RBJ-KLS420
5315302292046kha³¹˜bitterSgaw (Northern)507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
5318422292047kha⁴⁵’bitterSgaw (Southern)507Karenic1Luangthongkum 13TL-PK240
565922291394khàbitterSgaw (Bassein)507Karenic1Jones 61RBJ-KLS420
565912291399kháʔbitterSgaw (Moulmein)507Karenic1Jones 61RBJ-KLS420
189718m,229311khv³³ku²¹buckwheat (bitter)Bai (Bijiang)518Bai1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC191.370
225316229311qhu³³bitterBai (Bijiang)518Bai1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.370
38859229310qɑ̃³⁵liverBai (Bijiang)518Bai1Xu 84 BaiJZ-Bai0
225315229314khu³³bitterBai (Dali)518Bai1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.350
38992229313kɑ³⁵liverBai (Dali)518Bai1Xu 84 BaiJZ-Bai0
80855229309kã⁵⁵liverBai (Jianchuan)518Bai1Zhao 90ZYS-Bai9.50
4003092291846khu³³bitterBai (Jianchuan)518Bai1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1074.480
225341229317khu³³bitterBai (Jianchuan)518Bai1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC889.360
39134229316kɑ̃⁵⁵liverBai (Jianchuan)518Bai1Xu 84 BaiJZ-Bai0
20229229480kânliverChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Chou 72ACST139l0
169296229,229481kɑ̂n/kɑ̂nliverChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Karlgren 57 GSRGSR139l0
20190229480kʻobitterChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Chou 72ACST49u0
76551229478khaghbitter / difficultChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0Coblin 86WSC-SH440
295702229471khaʔbitterChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0Baxter 92WHB-OC13710
76553229468khwo-bitter / difficultChinese (Middle)549.0.2Middle Chinese0Coblin 86WSC-SH440
1424872291010gānliverChinese (Mandarin)559.0.3Modern Chinese0Evans 91ELS-CLL0
37062229,m1011gan◦tzahngliverChinese (Mandarin)559.0.3Modern Chinese0Sun J 85 ChGlJS-Ch4500
1423282291010bitterChinese (Mandarin)559.0.3Modern Chinese0Evans 91ELS-CLL0
366782291011kuubitter (taste)Chinese (Mandarin)559.0.3Modern Chinese0Sun J 85 ChGlJS-Ch730
1697922291007kɑnliverChinese (Mandarin)559.0.3Modern Chinese0Karlgren 57 GSRGSR139l0

Chinese comparandum

苦 OC *k’o, GSR #49u ‘bitter’; Coblin 86: *khagh; B & S 2011: *kʰˁaʔ; Mand. .
肝 OC *kɑ̂n, GSR #139l ‘liver’; B & S 2011: *s.kˁar {*s.kˁa[r]}; Mand. gān.


^ 1.
[Source note] rhyme!