1.0 The Body > 1.1 Body Parts > 1.1.5 Strength > 1.1.5.1 Sick/Hurt/Ache

#160 PTB *na-n/t ILL / PAIN / SORE / ACHE / DIFFICULT / EVIL SPIRIT

Reconstructed mesoroots below:

Chinese characters. GSR 152d-f, STC p.159, STC #80, LTSR #136, PLB *nat ⪤*nan. Split into allofams *na, *nan, *nat.

All three allofams (open-syllable, nasal-final, and stop-final) are well attested.

A few languages (Tangsa, Bisu, Sangkong) have developed the homorganic stop in this root.

rnanalysislgidreflexglossgfnlanguagegrpidgrpnogrpgeneticcitationsrcabbrsrcidrn
7570160175naillv.i.*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
8348160175napainv.*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT8170
143462160176naill,be v.*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Michailovsky 91 KrBM-PK7960
31309160178naill*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 83 TILJAM-TIL100
72028160182naill, pain*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Benedict 72 STCSTC800
77423160183na (*A)|sick*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Coblin 86WSC-SH1320
515502160,1602012na-|n ⪤ na-|till / suffer / hurt / evil spirit*Tibeto-Burman20.1Tibeto-Burman (previously published reconstructions)0Matisoff 03 HPTBJAM-HPTB6030
39756m,b,160505xɑ³¹ po⁵⁵ ȵɑŋ³⁵tuberculosisDarang [Taraon]61.1.2Deng1Sun H 80 MLDSLZO-MLD0
72451601054nâtdiseaseKaman [Miju]61.1.2Deng1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT11880
35671601054nʌ̀iillv.i.Kaman [Miju]61.1.2Deng1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
3992832,160590sɑu³⁵ nɑt⁵⁵tuberculosisKaman [Miju]61.1.2Deng1Sun H 80 MLDSLZO-MLD0
3568m,1601054tʌ́-nâtillv.i.Kaman [Miju]61.1.2Deng1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
357362119,m,160,m659jã◦ko ɲa◦gastomach acheIdu61.1.2Deng1Pulu 78JP-Idu0
357713316,160659tã-natoothacheIdu61.1.2Deng1Pulu 78JP-Idu0
500856160,1601920naa-|I, nat-|IIPAINFUL / SICK*Chin81.2Kuki-Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC8250
4456241601930napainPaite681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC8250
445625p,1601927a nāpainSizang681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC8250
445623160,1601926náa-|I, nàt-|IIsick, ache, pain, hurtThado681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC8250
445622160,x,1601925naː³ > nat³feel painTiddim681.2.1.1Northern Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC8250
4456261601929noóache (e.g head), hurt, ill, sickKhumi691.2.1.2Southern Plains Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC8250
445620160,1601923nǎa-|I, nàt-|IIpainful, sickbe v.Lai (Falam)701.2.2Central Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC8250
3562160975illv.i.Lushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
168507160,160984na ⪤ natill; illnessvs.Lushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1Benedict 72 STCSTC800
445621160,1601924náa-|I, nàt-|IIsick or ill, to be painful, to hurt, to achebe v.Lushai [Mizo]701.2.2Central Chin1VanBik 09 PKCKVB-PKC8250
3563m,160804kʌ-náillv.i.Kom Rem721.2.4“Old Kuki”0Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
6582p,160275²a²nɯpainv.Ao (Chungli)631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT8170
621598p,160,m2247e¹-no¹-lan³ailmentn.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 SuppCNDWB-CNSD 1
6215971602247no¹-hurt, be painfulvi.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Bruhn 14 SuppCNDWB-CNSD0
316400p,160961ē◦n̯ōpainLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Acharya 75ACH19750
246529160,s963no◦apainnLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
132731160,m965No◦ChoNorisick / be ill / hurtbeLotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Nienu 90 LotQVN-LothQ12.20
3565m,160962¹e¹noillv.i.Lotha Naga631.3.1Central Naga (Ao Group)1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
3566m,1601346a-næuillv.i.Rongmei / Nruanghmei641.3.3Zeme Group1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
5291811602031nahurt*Tangkhulic661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-Tk7730
621159m,m,1602024tsɯ-kʰə-nahurtTusom661.3.4Tangkhulic1Mortensen 12 TkDRM-TkVerbs.1300
35641601038naillv.i.Meithei131.4Meithei1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
214160,s1037na◦bəillnessMeithei131.4Meithei1Abbi 85AAAM-SSM0
10692160,s1040na◦bəsick / be ill / hurtbe v.Meithei131.4Meithei1Singh 91 MeiQCYS-Meithei12.20
47251m,1601063rèng-nō-sick / be ill / hurtbe v.Mikir [Karbi]141.5Mikir [Karbi]1Grüssner 79 BPKHG-MikirQ1930
3561p,160349sa◦naiʔillv.i.Bodo801.7.1.1Bodo1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
477421844,160880sha◦nasickbe v.Lalung [Tiwa]801.7.1.1Bodo1Balawan 65MB-Lal630
3560m,160,s568sak-na-aget pain / hurtGaro811.7.1.2Garo1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
783491601675dasickTangsa (Yogli)841.7.2.1Tangsa-Nocte1French 83WTF-PNN5610
146179160672nátspirit / demon[1] / deity (animist)Jingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Matisoff 85 GSTCJAM-GSTC0360
31426160676nátspiritJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Matisoff 74 TJLBJAM-TJLB3660
172626160669nat, hpi, tsuspiritJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
41249160679nat⁵⁵ghostJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Liu 84JZ-Jingpo0
3793941601814nat⁵⁵ghost / spiritnJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.190
206655160690nat⁵⁵ghost / demonJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.470
412291390,457,m,160679sin³¹ wop⁵⁵ a³¹ na³¹tuberculosisJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Liu 84JZ-Jingpo0
7246160667³natspirit / demonJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT11880
69704160685ə◦naillnessJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Benedict 72 STCSTC800
32225160676ʔə◦nàillnessJingpho371.7.3.1Jingpho1Matisoff 74 TJLBJAM-TJLB1140
168505160736nahurtvs.Kanauri202.1.1Western Himalayish0Benedict 72 STCSTC800
18671160,s1262nəd◦pasickPattani [Manchati]202.1.1Western Himalayish0Sharma, D.D. 82 THDS-Patt0
62083m,392,160,s1098sha◦rang nga◦maheadacheTsangla (Central)222.1.2Bodic1Egli-RodunerSER-HSLT37 70
422502121,1601086lo◦neʔtuberculosisTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 80 MLDSLZO-MLD0
42254160,s1086nat◦pasick personTsangla (Motuo)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 80 MLDSLZO-MLD0
39625160,18441093ne³⁵ tsɑ⁵⁵sickTshona (Wenlang)222.1.2Bodic1Lu 86 CuoMJZ-CNMenba0
2259381601092ne¹³pain / acheTshona (Mama)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC901.60
219563160,m1092ne¹³se⁵³ill / sickTshona (Mama)222.1.2Bodic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC776.60
13107160,m329nɛ²³¹ pho¹³sick / be ill / hurtbe v.Tibetan (Batang)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Dai 89 BataDQ-Batang12.20
2195371601380na¹³ill / sickTibetan (Khams:Dege)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC776.30
2259121601380na¹³pain / acheTibetan (Khams:Dege)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC901.30
2195611601557na¹³ill / sickTibetan (Lhasa)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC776.20
2259361601557na¹³pain / acheTibetan (Lhasa)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC901.20
805102121,1601581glo-nadtuberculosisTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Zhang Liansheng 88ZLS-Tib770
2195361601582naill / sickTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC776.10
2259111601582napain / acheTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC901.10
31192160,m1572na-baillTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Matisoff 83 TILJAM-TIL100
168504160,s1578na-baillvs.Tibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC800
76404160,s1580na-basickTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Coblin 86WSC-SH1320
80507160,18441581na-tshasickness, illness, diseaseTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Zhang Liansheng 88ZLS-Tib710
65831601562naddisease / ill / sickTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT8170
311931601572naddiseaseTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Matisoff 83 TILJAM-TIL100
697001601578nadillnessTibetan (Written)242.1.2.1Tibetan1Benedict 72 STCSTC800
65285682,160,s604mĩq◦naq◦badisease (eye)Gurung (Ghachok)232.1.4Tamangish1Glover 72 GuVoSIL-Gur10.A.380
65861160,s604naq◦bahurt / ache / painGurung (Ghachok)232.1.4Tamangish1Glover 72 GuVoSIL-Gur2.B.2.440
65428160,s604naq◦baesickGurung (Ghachok)232.1.4Tamangish1Glover 72 GuVoSIL-Gur12.A.260
79954160,s999na¹ mo¹sicknessManang (Gyaru)232.1.4Tamangish1Nagano 84 ManYN-Man1300
20652160,s1002¹nə◦pədisease / illness / sicknessManang (Prakaa)232.1.4Tamangish1Hoshi 84HM-Prak00480
686812121,1601531lo◦netuberculosisThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak10.A.310
67483682,160,m1531mi nɔh◦sɔeye diseaseThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak10.A.380
67770160,m1531nɔ-lɔhurt / ache / painv.Thakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak2.B.2.440
68081160,m1531nɔ-wɔpainThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak10.A.220
68380160,m1531nɔ-wɔsickThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak12.A.260
68082160,m1531nɔ-wɔpainfulThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak12.B.190
67374160,m1531nɔh◦sɔdiseaseThakali (Tukche)232.1.4Tamangish1Hari 71a ThVoSIL-Thak10.A.290
128707160562ȵi⁵⁵sick / ill / hurtbeErsu343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ErsQSHK-ErsCQ0
219569160561ȵi⁵⁵ill / sickErsu343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC776.180
3793911601811ȵe³⁵ghost / spiritnGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.160
206640160595ȵe³⁵ghost / demonGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.170
379444160,m,m,m1811ȵe³⁵khuɔ̃⁵⁵ndʐu³⁵mə³³spirit (evil) / demonnGuiqiong343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0670.160
427281m,1601813de³³ȵi³¹ache (head)v.Lyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1666.180
404193m,1601813de³³ȵi⁵³ill, to beLyuzu343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1160.180
404190m,1601810tə³³ŋe²⁴ill, to beMuya343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1160.150
427278m,1601810tə³³ŋe²⁴ache (head)v.Muya343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1666.150
168689m,1601135tɯ⁵⁵ŋe⁵⁵painbeMuya [Minyak]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MuyQSHK-MuyaQ12.20
225917m,1601136tɯ⁵⁵ŋe⁵⁵pain / acheMuya [Minyak]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC901.150
1298521601135ŋe⁵⁵sickbeMuya [Minyak]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 MuyQSHK-MuyaQ12.20
2195421601136ŋe⁵⁵ill / sickMuya [Minyak]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC776.150
4041851601805ȵẽ³⁵ill, to bePumi (Jiulong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1160.100
4272731601805ȵẽ⁵⁵ache (head)v.Pumi (Jiulong)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1666.100
380376m,1601853kɑ⁵⁵ŋẽ⁵⁵pain / agonynPumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0688.090
4272721601853nɛ⁵⁵ache (head)v.Pumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1666.090
4041841601853ȵɛ⁵⁵ill, to bePumi (Lanping)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1160.090
428171601304ȵɛ⁵⁵sick, getPumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Lu 83 PumiJZ-Pumi0
2195411601306ȵɛ⁵⁵ill / sickPumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC776.110
2259161601306ȵɛ⁵⁵pain / achePumi (Qinghua)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC901.110
2195651601309ȵi⁵³ill / sickPumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC776.100
429641601307ȵi⁵⁵sick, getPumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Lu 83 PumiJZ-Pumi0
225940160,m1309ȵi⁵⁵mə⁵³pain / achePumi (Taoba)343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC901.100
1312231601698ȵe⁵⁵hurt / be painfulv.Queyu (Yajiang) [Zhaba]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZhaQSHK-ZhabQ12.20
2259431601699ȵe⁵⁵pain / acheQueyu (Yajiang) [Zhaba]343.2Qiangic1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC901.160
380384160,m1812ȵi⁵⁵ʂuɛ³³pain / agonynXumi343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0688.170
379595160,m1809ne⁵⁵ɕi⁵⁵soul / spiritnZhaba (Daofu County)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0673.140
4041891601809ȵi¹³ill, to beZhaba (Daofu County)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1160.140
4272771601809ȵi¹³ache (head)v.Zhaba (Daofu County)343.2Qiangic1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1666.140
219566p,160,m1340ka nə woill / sickrGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC776.120
14162p,160,m606kə nə wosick / be ill / hurtbe v.rGyalrong783.3.1rGyalrong1Dai 89 JiarDQ-Jiarong12.20
424477p,160,m1806kɑ nə noinjure / hurt (the arm)v.rGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1607.110
404186p,160,m1806kɑ nə woill, to berGyalrong (Maerkang)783.3.1rGyalrong1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL1160.110
130308m,160,m616na◦nə◦wosick / be ill / hurtberGyalrong (Eastern)783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun H 91 rEQSHK-rGEQ12.20
333149p,160,18491799kɐ-nə-ngoillrGBenzhen783.3.1rGyalrong1Sun J 97 rGBJS-rGBenzhe0
697051601205ə◦naillnessAnong384Nungic1Benedict 72 STCSTC800
40191160538nɑ⁵³painfulTrung [Dulong] (Dulonghe)384Nungic1Sun H 82 DulJZ-Dulong0
40166160538nɑ⁵³sickTrung [Dulong] (Dulonghe)384Nungic1Sun H 82 DulJZ-Dulong0
167900160146nanspirit / animistic deity*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR136(b)0
146323160,160141nan ⪤ natspirit / demon[1] / deity (animist)*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1Matisoff 85 GSTCJAM-GSTC0360
167899160146natspirit / animistic deity*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR136(a)0
148843160,160146nat ⪤ nanspirit / animistic deity*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR1360
3559160138na¹illv.i.*Lolo-Burmese426.1Lolo-Burmese1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
38511160204nɔ⁵⁵sick, getAchang (Longchuan)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 85 AcJZJZ-Achang0
17519160209nɔ⁵⁵sickAchang (Xiandao)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 XianDQ-Xiandao16190
17587160209n̥uʔ⁵⁵hurt, woundvAchang (Xiandao)446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 XianDQ-Xiandao2211 2
13265160370na⁵⁵sickBola446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 BolaDQ-Bola16190
13349160370na⁵⁵acheBola446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 BolaDQ-Bola22910
69703160409ănapain, diseaseBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 72 STCSTC800
3554160390naillv.i.Burmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
133143160394nasickBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL350
31190160400naillBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Matisoff 83 TILJAM-TIL100
439805160406naillBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
168506160409naillvs.Burmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 72 STCSTC800
76405160410naillBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Coblin 86WSC-SH1320
146180160397natspirit / demon[1] / deity (animist)Burmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Matisoff 85 GSTCJAM-GSTC0360
437664160406natdemon, godBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 76 WBurPKB-WBRD0
304504160409natspiritBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Benedict 72 STCSTC136n3690
379454160,m1822nɑt⁴sho³spirit (evil) / demonnBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0670.260
172624m,160392sarai, natspiritBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Marrison 67 NagaGEM-CNL0
32226p,160401ʔə◦naillnessBurmese (Written)446.1.1Burmish1Matisoff 74 TJLBJAM-TJLB1140
15672160886nɔ:³¹sick / be ill / hurtbe v.Lashi446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 LashDQ-Lashi12.20
3794081601830nat³¹ghost / spiritnLeqi (Luxi)446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.330
35561601023illv.i.Maru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
154211601024nɔ³¹sick / be ill / hurtbe v.Maru [Langsu]446.1.1Burmish1Dai 89 LangDQ-Langsu12.20
441051601686nat²¹ghostAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Xu 84 ZaiwaJZ-Zaiwa0
441041601686nat²¹spiritAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Xu 84 ZaiwaJZ-Zaiwa0
3794051601827nat²¹ghost / spiritnAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.300
2066781601693nat²¹ghost / demonAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.420
35551601679illv.i.Atsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
441541601686no⁵¹painfulAtsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Xu 84 ZaiwaJZ-Zaiwa0
441341601686no⁵¹sickv.Atsi [Zaiwa]446.1.1Burmish1Xu 84 ZaiwaJZ-Zaiwa0
11793160152C-natᴸ|spirit*Loloish456.1.2Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo3610
10944160152C-na¹|ill*Loloish456.1.2Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo763S0
133142160153C-na¹|sick*Loloish456.1.2Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL350
15898160958no³³ ?sick / be ill / hurtbe v.Lolopho456.1.2Loloish1Dai 89 LoloDQ-Lolopho12.20
142279160586na³²³sickGazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 91 TB15DHFRL0
17798160585na³²³illness, be ill, be in painGazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 87 GazhDLF-Gazhuo0
17823160585na³²³illbe v.Gazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 87 GazhDLF-Gazhuo0
13894160584na³²³sick / be ill / hurtbe v.Gazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 89 GazhDQ-Gazhuo12.20
379422160,m,m1845ni³¹ma³³mo³¹ghost / spiritnGazhuo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.470
292494160879spiritLalo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Björverud 94SB-Lalo0
9459160878nɑ⁵⁵sick / be ill / hurtbe v.Lalo466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 86 YiCK-YiQ12.20
96751601148no²¹sick / be ill / hurtbe v.Nasu466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 86 YiCK-YiQ12.20
336611601152nɛ 55|spirit / animistic deityNasu466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR136(a)0
1461831601150nɛ⁵⁵spirit / demon[1] / deity (animist)Nasu466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Matisoff 85 GSTCJAM-GSTC0360
98871601164no²¹sick / be ill / hurtbe v.Nesu466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 86 YiCK-YiQ12.20
163301601216na³³sickNusu (Central)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 89 NusBDQ-NusuB1619.0
160821601218na³⁵sickNusu (Central/Zhizhiluo)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 89 NusADQ-NusuA1619.0
42463160*1220nɔ⁵⁵painfulNusu (Southern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
424431601220nɔ⁵⁵sickNusu (Southern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
42603160*1219nɑ³¹painfulNusu (Northern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
425831601219nɑ³¹sickNusu (Northern)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
427331601217nɑ³⁵sickNusu (Central)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
42756160*1217nɑ³⁵painfulNusu (Central)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun J 86 NusuJZ-Nusu0
437411601656no²¹sickYi (Dafang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 85 YiJZJZ-Yi0
43759160*1656no²¹painfulYi (Dafang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 85 YiJZJZ-Yi0
463971m,1601962su³³ȵi⁵⁵medium, spirit; sunyiYi (Liangshan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Ma 08 YiSIL-Nuosuindex0
463023160,m1962ȵi⁵⁵ʦhɿ³³ghost; spiritYi (Liangshan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Ma 08 YiSIL-Nuosuindex0
463024160,m,m,m1962ȵi⁵⁵ʦhɿ³³xa⁵⁵mo²¹demon; ghostYi (Liangshan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Ma 08 YiSIL-Nuosuindex0
159141601661nv̩³¹illbe v.Yi (Lishan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Dai 87 GazhDLF-Gazhuo0
206644160,m1662ne̱³³no³³ghost / demonYi (Mile)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.250
2066701601663ne̱²¹ghost / demonYi (Mojiang)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.260
3794121601834ni²¹ghost / spiritnYi (Nanhua)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.370
2066691601664nɛ²¹ghost / demonYi (Nanhua)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.240
438421601665ni²¹ghostYi (Nanjian)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 85 YiJZJZ-Yi0
438411601665ni²¹spiritYi (Nanjian)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 85 YiJZJZ-Yi0
2066431601666ni²¹ghost / demonYi (Nanjian)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.230
438801601665nɑ⁵⁵sick, getYi (Nanjian)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 85 YiJZJZ-Yi0
3794111601833ni²¹ghost / spiritnYi (Weishan)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.360
10295385,383,1601667i³³-tɕʰi³³ na³³headacheYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
99161601667na³³illYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
102781601667na³³ache, painYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
9923160,m,160,m1667na³³-bo³³ na³³-pʰa⁵⁵cause of diseaseYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
9921160,m1667na³³-fu³³terminally illYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
9918160,m,160,m1667na³³-mu²¹ na³³-mi⁵⁵pathologyYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
9924160,m1667na³³-sa⁵⁵symptomYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
9919160,m,m,m1667na³³-ȵi³³-pu̱³³-dzu̱³³sick appearanceYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
9917160,m1667na³⁴-bu³³germsYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
9926160,m1667na³⁴-tʰᴇ³³symptomYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
10079160,18491667na³⁴-ŋgo³³diseaseYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
9925160,18491667na³⁴-ŋgo³³disease, illnessYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
10030160,m1667ȵi⁵⁵-tsʰɿ³³ghostYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Chen 79 YiChCSL-YIzd0
379410160,m1832ȵi⁵⁵tshɿ³³ghost / spiritnYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.350
206642160,m1670ȵi⁵⁵tshɿ³³ghost / demonYi (Xide)466.1.2.1Northern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.210
47610160216no²²sick / be ill / hurtbe v.Ahi476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Luo 90LMZ-AhiQ12.20
206674160696ne³³ghost / demonJinuo476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.340
14309160698ne⁴⁴ghostJinuo (Baya/Banai)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Dai 89 JinADQ-JinA9620
14548160697ne⁴⁴ghostJinuo (Baka)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Dai 89 JinBDQ-JinB9620
41081160700ne⁴⁴ghostJinuo (Youle)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Gai 86JZ-Jinuo0
3794191601842ne⁴⁴ghost / spiritnJinuo476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.440
14569160697no³¹sickJinuo (Baka)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Dai 89 JinBDQ-JinB16780
14631160697no³¹hurt, woundvJinuo (Baka)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Dai 89 JinBDQ-JinB23040
14337160698nɔ³¹sickJinuo (Baya/Banai)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Dai 89 JinADQ-JinA16780
14415160698nɔ³¹hurt, woundvJinuo (Baya/Banai)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Dai 89 JinADQ-JinA23040
14426160698nɔ³¹ache (teng)Jinuo (Baya/Banai)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Dai 89 JinADQ-JinA23910
14642160697nɔ³¹ache (teng)Jinuo (Baka)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Dai 89 JinBDQ-JinB23910
41115160700nɔ⁴²sickv.Jinuo (Youle)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Gai 86JZ-Jinuo0
40963160699nɔ⁴²sick, illbe v.Jinuo (Buyuan)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Gai 86JZ-Jinuo0
41137160700nɔ⁴²painfulJinuo (Youle)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Gai 86JZ-Jinuo0
3558m,160830ā◦nǎillv.i.Lahu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
10945160492na˯ill*Common Lahu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo0
11794160492neˇspirit*Common Lahu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo3610
148806160831get betterLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 88 DLJAM-DLp.734-70
32227160838sickbe v.Lahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 74 TJLBJAM-TJLB1140
41601160850na³¹sickLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
41549160850na³¹illnessLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
146176160833spirit / demon[1] / deity (animist)Lahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 85 GSTCJAM-GSTC0360
33662160839spirit / animistic deityLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR136(b)0
41568160850ne⁵³spiritLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
41569160850ne⁵³ghostLahu (Black)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
41757160856na³¹sickLahu (Yellow)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
41700160856na³¹diseaseLahu (Yellow)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu0
41722160856ni⁵⁵spiritLahu (Yellow)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Chang 86JZ-Lahu 3
3557160921illv.i.Lisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Weidert 87 TBToAW-TBT1980
10711160923na⁴illLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo763S0
10712160,m923na⁴hsya²illLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo763S0
278597160946ne²¹ghostNLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
282804160,m944ne²¹dzø³³ghost that steals the soul (based on the belief that some people can release a ghost to steal others' souls)Lisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
33664160930ni5spirit / animistic deityLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR136(b)0
279103160,m946ni²¹bɯʔ²¹ghostLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
279123160,m946ni²¹dzø³³ghost that steals the soul (based on the belief that some people can release a ghost to steal others' souls)Lisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
279105160,m946ni²¹gu⁴⁴pay tribute to a ghostLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
279108160,m946ni²¹lɔ³³hit the ghost (at wedding, the bride and bridegroom throw bamboo pieces at each other, to drive away evil spirits)Lisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
279114160,m,m,m946ni²¹phi²¹ si³³phi²¹picture or statue of ghost or godLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
279113160,m,m,m946ni²¹phi²¹ si³³pɤ⁵⁵become ghost and god; become evilLisu (Northern)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
282803160,m,m,m944ni²¹phjø²¹ si³³phjø²¹picture or statue of ghost or godLisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
282802160,m,m,m944ni²¹phjø²¹ si³³pɤ⁵⁵become ghost and god; become evilLisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 94 LisuDB-Lisu0
41874160947ni³¹ghostLisu (Nujiang)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Xu 86 LisuJZ-Lisu0
206645160942ni³¹ghost / demonLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.270
10848160923ni⁵spiritLisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Bradley 79 PLoDB-PLolo361 4
146178160927ni⁵spirit / demon[1] / deity (animist)Lisu476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 85 GSTCJAM-GSTC0360
285410160943ni⁵ghostn.Lisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Fraser 22JF-HLL0
286428160943ni⁵spirit / apparitionLisu (Central)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Fraser 22JF-HLL0
41917160947nɑ³³sickLisu (Nujiang)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Xu 86 LisuJZ-Lisu0
41947160947nɑ³³painfulLisu (Nujiang)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Xu 86 LisuJZ-Lisu0
336631601368ni 55|spirit / animistic deitySani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR136(b)0
1461771601367ni⁵⁵spirit / demon[1] / deity (animist)Sani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Matisoff 85 GSTCJAM-GSTC0360
169151601365nɑ³³sick, painSani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Ma 89 SanQMXL-SaniQ321.120
17186160,m,m1366nɑ³³ ko³³illnessSani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Wu 84WAH-Sani99.80
17187160,m,m1366nɑ³³ ko³³ tʂo³³illbe v.Sani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Wu 84WAH-Sani99.90
17183160,m,m1366nɑ³³ tʂʅ²¹ mɑ³³disease (jibing)Sani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Wu 84WAH-Sani99.50
1319641601379nɒ³³ill, sickSani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Wu 84YHJC-Sani0
1318381601379nɒ³³ache, painSani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Wu 84YHJC-Sani0
168891601365nɪ⁵⁵ghostSani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Ma 89 SanQMXL-SaniQ320.10
3794141601836nɪ⁵⁵ghost / spiritnYi (Sani)476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.390
131951385,387,1601379o⁵⁵qo²¹nɒ³³headacheSani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Wu 84YHJC-Sani0
132094635,s,1601379tʂi³³mɒ³³nɒ³³toothacheSani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Wu 84YHJC-Sani0
16994635,1601365tʂʅ³³ nɑ³³toothacheSani [Nyi]476.1.2.2Central Loloish1Ma 89 SanQMXL-SaniQ341.40
134708160244sickAkha (Yunnan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL350
133144160228sickAkha486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL350
134707160243sickAkha (Thai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL350
33658160234neh LS|spirit / animistic deityAkha486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR136(a)0
146181160230nehʔ³¹spirit / demon[1] / deity (animist)Akha486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Matisoff 85 GSTCJAM-GSTC0360
31427160233neh˰spiritAkha486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Matisoff 74 TJLBJAM-TJLB3660
51328p,160344aŋ◦dáillBisu486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Beaudouin 88 BisuPB-Bisu400
142118p,160346ʔaŋ◦dásickBisu486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Bradley 9x BisuDB-Bisu0
134710160633sickHani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL350
33659160631ne 21c|spirit / animistic deityHani (Hu T’an)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR136(a)0
40583160,m629ne̱³¹ xa³¹ghostHani (Dazhai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
206647160,m510ne̱³¹xa³¹ghost / demonHani (Dazhai)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.310
379416160,m1839ne̱³¹xa³¹ghost / spiritnHani (Lüchun)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.410
1331471601299sickHani (Pijo)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL350
206672160418ni̱³¹ghost / demonHani (Caiyuan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.300
40436160628ȵi̱³¹spiritHani (Caiyuan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
40438160628ȵi̱³¹ghostHani (Caiyuan)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
40738160630nɛ̱³¹ghostHani (Gelanghe)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
408571788,160634mɔ⁵⁵ nɔ⁵⁵ulcer, soreHani (Shuikui)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
134709160635nalsickHani (Wordlist)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL350
134713160638nɔ⁵⁵sickHaoni486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL350
40911160634nɔ⁵⁵sick, getHani (Shuikui)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
40934160634nɔ⁵⁵painfulHani (Shuikui)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
40882160,m634ȵi̱³¹ xɔ³¹ghostHani (Shuikui)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 86 HaniJZ-Hani0
206673160,m1416ȵi̱³¹xɔ³¹ghost / demonHani (Shuikui)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Sun H 91 ZMYYZMYYC523.320
134711160784nɔ́sickHani (Khatu)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL350
379417160,m1840ȵi̱³¹xɔ³¹ghost / spiritnHani (Mojiang)486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Huang and Dai 92 TBLTBL0669.420
1331491601115no⁵sickMpi486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Hansson 89 AHKPILH-PL350
16695160,m1285dɑ⁵⁵ ce³³sickCôông [Phunoi]486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Bradley xx PhuDB-Phunoi0
1488081601361nda⁵⁵illSangkong486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Matisoff 93 PCJAM-II0
150114p,1601362n◦da⁵⁵hurtSangkong486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Li Yongsui 91 SangLYS-Sangkon0
336601601635ni 33|spirit / animistic deityWoni486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Matisoff 72 LTSRJAM-TSR136(a)0
1461821601634ni³³spirit / demon[1] / deity (animist)Woni486.1.2.3Southern Loloish1Matisoff 85 GSTCJAM-GSTC0360
5167391601999ɲi˩demon, ghostLaze (Xiangjiao)436.2Naxi1Michaud 06 NaLazeAM-NaLaze114320
166710160413-nɛspirit of a personnBwe507Karenic1Henderson 97 KarEJAH-BKD0
166713m,160413-θu=nɛevil spirit of a person, ghostnBwe507Karenic1Henderson 97 KarEJAH-BKD0
166712m,160413nə-nɛevil spirit (in general)Bwe507Karenic1Henderson 97 KarEJAH-BKD0
166711m,160413nə-nɛyour evil spiritBwe507Karenic1Henderson 97 KarEJAH-BKD0
4976431601981nàspiritNKayan (Pekon)507Karenic1Manson 10 KayanKM-Kayan0
497657160,m1981nà◦dóghost [lit. spirit-knock]NKayan (Pekon)507Karenic1Manson 10 KayanKM-Kayan0
497671160,m,160,m1981nà◦lè̤◦nà◦θyánevil spirit, demon [lit. spirit-red-spirit-green]NelabKayan (Pekon)507Karenic1Manson 10 KayanKM-Kayan0
498887m,1601981ta◦nàspiritNKayan (Pekon)507Karenic1Manson 10 KayanKM-Kayan0
38889m,160310ʂẽʴ⁵⁵ ȵi̱²¹spiritBai (Bijiang)518Bai1Xu 84 BaiJZ-Bai0
20237160480nɑ̂ndifficulty / sufferingChinese (Old/Mid)539.0.1Old Chinese0Chou 72ACST152d-f0
29241160474nândifficulty, sufferingChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0Matisoff 85 GSTCJAM-GSTC0360
31191160475nândifficulty, sufferingChinese (Old)539.0.1Old Chinese0Matisoff 83 TILJAM-TIL100
77422160468ṇasickChinese (Middle)549.0.2Middle Chinese0Coblin 86WSC-SH1320
5509101602118nândifficulty, sufferingChinese (Middle)549.0.2Middle Chinese0Matisoff 85 GSTCJAM-GSTC0360

Chinese comparandum

難 OC *nɑ̂n, GSR #152d-f ‘difficult, painful’; B & S 2011: *nˁar; Mand. nán.
難 OC *nɑ̂n, GSR #152d-f ‘difficulty, suffering’; B & S 2011: *nˁar‑s; Mand. nàn.
Tib. mnar
耐 B & S 2011: *nˁə‑s; Mand. nài ‘endure, suffer’.


^ 1.
[Source note] be.painful-variety
^ 2.
Achang - ‘causative’.
^ 3.
*nan.
^ 4.
*nan.